The Northern Hemisphere refers to the part of the Earth that is located to the north of the equator. The Northern Hemisphere encompasses 67.3% of the land area of our planet. 60.7% of the surface of the Northern Hemisphere is occupied by water. Summer in the hemisphere is experienced between June to September while winter lasts from December to March. The Northern Hemisphere encompasses the whole of continental Europe, North America, the Caribbean region, and Central America. Most of Asia with the exception of the part of maritime Southeast Asia that crosses the equator is also part of the Northern Hemisphere. Nearly two-thirds of Africa and one-tenth of South America are also part of this hemisphere. Around 90% of the world's population live here.
The Southern Hemisphere is the part of the Earth that lies to the equator’s south. The Southern Hemisphere encompasses 32.7% of the land area of our planet. 80.9% of the surface of the Southern Hemisphere is covered in water. The entire landmass of Australia and Antarctica are in the Southern Hemisphere. Most of South America (nearly 90%), the southern third of Africa, and several islands off the coast of mainland Asia and the Oceanic countries are part of this hemisphere. The South Atlantic, South Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans are part of the Southern Hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere region experience summer between December and March while winter is from June to September.
Also known as the “Oriental Hemisphere” or the “Old World”, the Eastern Hemisphere refers to the part of our planet that is located to the east of the Prime Meridian and to the west of the antimeridian. The Eastern Hemisphere encompasses parts of Eurasia, Africa and Oceania including Australia. The hemisphere is centered in the Indian Ocean, 910 km west of Indonesia. The area of land covered by this hemisphere is larger than that of the Western Hemisphere. About 82% of the world population is found here.
The part of the Earth that is located west of the Prime Meridian is classified as the Western Hemisphere. The Western Hemisphere includes North and South America. It encompasses parts of Eurasia and Africa located to the west of the Prime Meridian. It also includes the tip of Russia east of the antimeridian. Parts of Antarctica and Oceania also fall within the realm of the Western Hemisphere. At 22,837 ft above sea level, Mount Aconcagua in the Argentinian Andes is the tallest mountain in the Western Hemisphere. The Western Hemisphere is inhabited by only about 18% of the world population.
The Land Hemisphere is the part of the Earth that encompasses the largest portion of land on the planet. Despite being called the Land Hemisphere, the area of water in the hemisphere is greater than that of the area of land present here. The Land Hemisphere has its center at 47°13′N 1°32′W which is located near the French city of Nantes. The Land Hemisphere includes most of Asia and South America and the whole of Africa, Europe, and North America. Seven-eighths of the land area of the Earth is part of this hemisphere.
The part of the Earth that has the highest area occupied by water is called the Water Hemisphere. The center of the Earth’s Water Hemisphere is at 47°13′S 178°28′E. The center is located near New Zealand. The Water Hemisphere of the Earth has only one-eighth of the land of the planet, the rest is all water. The land part includes mainly the Oceanic countries and a small section of Southeast Asia. The Water Hemisphere of the Earth encompasses most of the Pacific and the Indian Ocean.