Germany has a population of 81,305,856 and gained its independence in 1618.In the first century BC, powerful Roman legions moved north across When the Roman Empire all but collapsed, groups of regional Germanic peoples (including free Germany) merged to become a consequential European force, one ruled (768-814) by Charlemagne, King of the Franks.
After Charlemagne's death, the land was sub-divided and loosely controlled by the Holy Roman Empire (the Pope in Rome). Otto the Great (appointed by Rome) and the emperors that followed claimed that they were the true successors to the ancient Roman Empire and therefore called their domain the Holy Roman Empire.
In the late Middle Ages the Hanseatic League, a large group of (free cities) formed and became an economic power in the port cities of northern Germany. Bremen, Hamburg and Lubeck became major centers of commerce, Heidelberg University was founded and Johannes Gutenberg printed the first bible.
For almost two centuries Germany was fractured into an almost unmanageable collection of cities and states, presided over (or ruled) by bishops and archbishops (controlled by Rome), and assorted kings, princes, dukes, imperial knights and other military nobility.
In 1517, the Martin Luther inspired Protestant Reformation began, thrusting Berlin.
Beginning in 1793, the southern and western states were no match for Napoleon far-reaching armies, however, Prussia offered strong resistance and when the Napoleonic Wars ended, a confederation of autonomous German states and towns formed.
Jewishpopulation in full swing, German forces marched against Russia in the dead of winter. They soon stalled along that front for lack of food and fuel, and the brutal sub-zero conditions.
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