Particulate emissions come from air pollution, which are linked to the degradation of the environment around us. These are in the form of dust, pollen, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. Particulates come in fine, coarse, and ultrafine sizes. Combustion processes and wind-carried dust are two sources of particulate emissions. Emitted gases also condensate on some particles already in the air. Fine particulates are especially hazardous as it could be inhaled and damage the lungs. Soot is also found in the air to around a proportion of 15-20%. The use of wood and coal as fuels in developing countries is one source. Particulates are also produced as pollutants released from factories, mining operations, agricultural processes, and processing plants. Even sea spray can contribute to the particulate emissions in the air.
Correlation of Particulate Emissions Relative to Gross National Income
Poor environmental health can devastate worker productivity, especially in developing countries. Work environment and work conditions are two important factors that also affect human health. Worker health affects productivity. Indoor and outdoor particulate pollutants in the air pose a danger to workers and their families. Developing countries have experienced a 6.5% CO2 emissions in the 2000s. The critical carbon intensity of the energy mix also rose by over 1% per year in the 2000s. This is due to the use of coal to generate electric power. The following countries all belong to the developing world and clean air may not be one of their priorities when hunger and poverty plague their population. Chad is an arid and desert-like country. It is affected by particulate emissions and has a 3.0% loss in economic and labor productivity. Afghanistan is located in Central Asia and has been at war for several decades now. It has a 2.8% loss in worker productivity. Sierra Leone is a country in West Africa with a 2.1% loss in worker productivity. Equatorial Guinea has a 2.1% loss in worker productivity. Niger has a 2.0% loss worker productivity. Swaziland has a 1.8% loss in worker productivity. Mali has a 1.8% loss in worker productivity. Togo has a 1.8% loss in worker productivity. Guinea-Bissau has a 1.6% loss in worker productivity. The Democratic Republic of Congo has a 1.6% loss in worker productivity. Mauritania has a 1.6% loss in worker productivity. Ivory Coast has a 1.3% loss in worker productivity. Burkina Faso has a 1.3% loss in worker productivity. Lesotho has a 1.3% loss in worker productivity. Guinea has a 1.3% loss in worker productivity.
Updating Clean Air Policies
Current air policies in Europe and the rest of the world may have the same accepted thresholds of the amount of particulate matter allowed in the air. However, this particulate thresholds are no longer applicable. Recent research data have shown that certain groups in a given population are at a higher risk due to existing respiratory conditions and afflictions. Groups of people living or working near pollutant sources should also be taken into consideration. The inclusion of several pollutants left out from government air policies such as heavy metals, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen trichloride which all have negative health effects should be considered. Additional concerns remain undetermined about the effects of city air pollution mix on human health. There is strong evidence that reduction of particulate emissions from the air is important to human well-being and worker productivity.
15 Countries With The Highest Relative Productivity Losses From Particulate Emissions
|Rank||Country||Particulate Emissions Damages, % of Gross National Income|
|3||Sierra Leone||2.1% loss|
|4||Equatorial Guinea||2.1% loss|
|10||DR Congo||1.6% loss|
|12||Ivory Coast||1.3% loss|
|13||Burkina Faso||1.3% loss|
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