How Many Countries are in Central America?

Seven countries make up Central America, with Guatemala being the most populous among these nations.

Central America is the southernmost part of North American continent in the portion of the Isthmian. Central America is bordered by Mexico to the North and Columbia to the southern east. The region is also bordered to the east by the Caribbean Sea and the west by the Pacific Ocean. The region sits on a land mass of 523780 square kilometers and forms part of the Mesoamerican Biodiversity Hotspot. Central America is characterized by series of seismic activities such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions which have been disastrous to the population living in the region. Central America has a population of 42688190 people spread across the seven countries making up the region.

The Biggest Nations Of Central America


The Republic of Guatemala is the country with the highest population in Central America. The country has a population of 14,373,472 people and covers an area of 108,890km2 with a population density of 129 people per km2. The capital city of the country is Guatemala City. The country is bordered to the north by Mexico, northeast by Belize, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest and the east the Caribbean Sea. Guatemala has an abundance of biological and ecosystem including large numbers of endemic species and rich, distinctive culture. The country is mainly mountainous with patches of deserts, valleys, and sand dunes. Guatemala is home to the highest mountain and the highest is Volcán Tajumulco Mountain, at 4220m above sea level. The country is constitutionally democratic governed by an elected president who is in charge as the head of state and government. Guatemala is the largest economy in Central America with a GDP per Capita of US$5200.


The Republic of Honduras borders Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. The country, whose capital city is Tegucigalpa, is also known to many as the Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from the British Honduras, the current Belize. Honduras covers a total area of 112,090km2 and a population of 8,448,465 people. The population density is 67 people per km2 and the capital city of the country is Tegucigalpa. Honduras state and the government are headed by a democratically elected president. The country’s economic growth has averaged 7% over the past few years while the majority of the population is living under the poverty line. Roman Catholic is the most common religion with other faiths such as evangelical Protestant, Islam, Jews, and Buddhists also shaping the religion of the country.

El Salvador

The Republic of El Salvador translates to the Republic of Savior is the smallest and the most densely populated country out of the seven countries in the region with 292 people per km2 and total population of 6,108,590 people. Most of the population belongs to the Mestizos ethnic group with Christianity being the dominant religion in the country. San Salvador is the largest city in the country and also the capital city of El Salvador. The country’s political framework is that of presidential system democratically elected with the president being the head of both the state and the government. El Salvador’s economy has been affected by natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. Service sector dominates the economy followed by industrial sector and agricultural sector.

Other Central American Nations

Other countries making up the Central American region are Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Belize. All Central America countries have developed and maintained diplomatic relations with Taiwan instead of China.Only Costa Rica has established diplomatic relations with China

Which Countries Make Up Central America?

RankCountryPopulation (July 2013 est.)Area (km²)Population density (per km²)Capital
1 Guatemala14,373,472108,890129Guatemala City
2 Honduras8,448,465112,09067Tegucigalpa
3 El Salvador6,108,59021,040292San Salvador
4 Nicaragua5,788,531130,37344Managua
5 Costa Rica4,695,94251,10082San José
6 Panama3,559,40878,20044Panama City
7 Belize334,29722,96613Belmopan

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