Ethiopia is a landlocked country in East Africa occupying an area of 1,104,300 sq. km.
The country has one of the most rugged and complex topographies in the continent. The five major topographic features of the country are the Rift Valley, Western and Eastern Highlands, and Western and Eastern Lowlands.
The North Central massifs of the country host the highest point in the country marked by the yellow upright triangle. It is the 4,533 m high Mount Ras Dejen. Lake Tana (marked on the map), the biggest lake in the country is also located here at an altitude of around 1,800m.
Along the border with Sudan, the Western lowlands extend north to south and have elevations of around 1,000 m and host the lower valleys of rivers like Tekeze, Blue Nile, and Baro.
To the northeast is the Afar Depression or the Denakil Plain has the Kobar Sink with the lowest point in the country at -125 m. This area is part of the Rift Valley that extends into a narrower depression in the southwest. As observed on the map above, this contains the lake region of the country with numerous lakes like Abaya, Rudolf, Chew, etc., that form an internal drainage basin.
The Eastern Highlands have peaks higher than 4,000 m but are less extensive than their Western counterpart. The Eastern lowlands include the Ogaden Desert and Hawd.
Ethiopia has three main drainage systems. To the east, the Genale and Shebele Rivers rise in the Eastern Highlands and drain into the Indian Ocean. To the southwest, the lakes and Awash River form the Rift Valley internal drainage system. To the west is the system formed by the Baro, Tekeze, and the Blue Nile Rivers that flow into Sudan.
Ethiopia is divided into 9 ethnically based regional states and 2 self-governing administrations. The regional states are Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, and Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples). The two self-governing administrations are Adis Abeba (Addis Ababa) and Dire Dawa.
With an area of 284,537.84 sq. km, Oromia Region is the largest major subdivision of Ethiopia by area. Addis Ababa, the national capital, is the most populous one.
The regions are further subdivided into 68 zones which are further subdivided into districts or Woreda and then into Kebele or municipalities.
Ethiopia is a country in East Africa in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres of the Earth. It is a landlocked country bordered by six countries. These are Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, South Sudan, and Sudan to the north, northeast, east, south, west, and northwest respectively.
Regional Maps: Map of Africa
|Legal Name||Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia|
|Capital City||Addis Ababa|
|9 02 N, 38 42 E|
|Independence||oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)|
|Total Area||1,104,300 km2|
|Land Area||1,096,570 km2|
|Water Area||7,730 km2|
|Total Border||5,925 km|
|Bordering Countries||Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1640 km, South Sudan 1299 km, Sudan 744 km|
|Climate||Tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation|
|Coordinates||8 00 N, 38 00 E|
|Mean Elevation||1,330 m|
|Lowest Elevation||-125 m|
|Highest Elevation||4,550 m|
|Ethnic Groups||Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)|
|Languages||Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)|
|Religions||Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)|
|GDP Per Capita||$857.50|
|Exports||Coffee (27%, by value), oilseeds (17%), edible vegetables including khat (17%), gold (13%), flowers (7%), live animals (7%), raw leather products (3%), meat products (3%)|
This page was last updated on September 14, 2020