Sudan is a relatively large Northeast African country occupying an area of 1,886,068 sq. km.
Massive plains and plateaus cover most of Sudan. The central plain of the country can be divided into three regions depending on topography. The northern part of this plain is a primarily rocky desert area called the Nubian Desert (as shown on the map). A central-southern part is a clay plain while the western part features desert area covered by sand dunes.
This vast stretch of plain land is flanked by the Darfur Plateau and Nile-Congo watershed to the west, and the Red Sea Hills and Ethiopian Plateau to the east
As displayed on Sudan's physical map, the Marrah Mountains rising from the Darfur Plateau hosts the tallest peak in the country, the Deriba crater which is 3,042 m tall.
Sudan is mainly composed of vast plains and plateaus that are drained by the Nile River and its tributaries. This river system runs from south to north across the entire length of the east-central part of the country.
To the east of the plain, the Red Sea Hills is a region of rugged hills cut by fast-moving streams. A narrow coastal plain lies to the east of this hilly region along the Red Sea.
But nothing is said about the geography of Sudan without mentioning the Nile River and its tributaries flowing from south to north and draining most of the country. The River enters Sudan as the White Nile and then joins the Blue Nile (coming from the Ethiopian Plateau) at Khartoum to form the Nile River.
As observed on the map above, the Republic of Sudan has 18 states or 18 wilayat. In alphabetical order, these are Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, and White Nile.
Before July 9, 2011, Sudan was composed of 25 states. 10 of these states were ceded to the newly formed country of South Sudan resulting in Sudan having only 15 states. In 2012, two new states were created within the territory of Sudan and a third one was created in 2013. Thus, the total number of states in the country is now 18.
The country also has an area with a special administrative status called the Abyei Area. It is located on the border between Sudan and South Sudan.
Khartoum is the capital city of the country.
Sudan is a Northeast African country. It is located in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres of the Earth. Sudan is bordered by seven countries. Egypt bounds it to the north. It has borders with Libya and Chad to the northwest and west respectively. To the south and southeast are South Sudan and Ethiopia respectively while Eritrea borders Sudan to the east. The northeastern boundary is formed by the Red Sea.
Regional Maps: Map of Africa
|Legal Name||Republic of the Sudan|
|15 36 N, 32 32 E|
|Independence||1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)|
|Total Area||1,861,484 km2|
|Land Area||1,731,671 km2|
|Water Area||129,813 km2|
|Total Border||6,819 km|
|Bordering Countries||Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1403 km, Egypt 1276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2158 km|
|Climate||Hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (april to november)|
|Coordinates||15 00 N, 30 00 E|
|Mean Elevation||568 m|
|Lowest Elevation||0 m|
|Highest Elevation||3,042 m|
|Ethnic Groups||unspecified Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata|
|Languages||Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur|
|Religions||Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority|
|Currency||Sudanese pounds (SDG)|
|GDP Per Capita||$441.51|
|Exports||Gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum arabic, sugar|
This page was last updated on October 12, 2020