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Quebec History Timeline

  • (1534) French Explorer, Jacques Cartier, planted cross on Gaspe Peninsula, south shore of Saint Lawrence River, claimed area for France; first province of New France
  • (1535) Expedition led by Jacques Cartier sailed into Saint Lawrence River
  • (1541) Jean-Francois de la Roque de Roberval made lieutenant of New France; given orders to establish colony; Cartier founded Charlesbourg Royal, first French establishment in America
  • (1581 - 1584) Expeditions organized by French merchants explored Canada for fur
  • (1609) Samuel De Champlain joined expedition against Iroquois; French and Hurons victorious
  • (1627) Seigneurial system introduced by King Louis XIV of France, forbade settlement in New France by anyone other than Roman Catholics
  • (1629) French trading post, Tadoussac, captured by brothers David, Lous, Thomas Kirke of England; demanded Champlain to surrender Quebec
  • (1632) Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye signed; Acadia and Quebec returned to France; Couillard-Hebert family received first back slave
  • (1634) Sieur de La Violette founded fur trading post and fort, now Trois Rivieres
  • (1641) French and Iroquois Wars began
  • (1648) Huron country destroyed, Hurons relocated to ile D'Orleans
  • (1663) New France became royal province under King Louis XIV
  • (1665) Carignan-Saleires regiment destroyed five Mohawk villages
  • (1666) Carignan-Saleires soldiers invaded Iroquois territory, burned villages, destroyed crops
  • (1685) King Louis XIV decreed Code Noir (Black Code),ordered all Jews out of French colonial empire; defined slavery rules, restricted activities of free Negroes; forbade any religious activities other than Roman Catholic
  • (1689) Iroquois warriors attacked Lachine settlement, klled or tortured most inhabitants (Lachine Massacre)
  • (1701) 39 First Nation tribes, French Colonial Government signed Great Peace of Montreal
  • (1702) Queen Anne's War between France and Great Britain began
  • (1712) New France extended from Newfoundland to Lake Superior, from Hudson Bay to Gulf of Mexico
  • (1713) Treaty of Utrecht ended Queen Anne's War
  • (1731) Construction began on Chemin du roy (King's Road) between Quebec City and Montreal
  • (1734) Marie-Joseph Angelique, black slave, hanged for burning owner's house
  • (1754) Beginning of French and Indian War between Great Britain and France
  • (1759) Quebec City siege began; British troops defeated French troops in Battle of Plains of Abraham near Quebec City; Quebec City surrendered; government of New France moved to Montreal
  • (1760) French Forces defeated British during Battle of Sainte-Foy on Plains of Abraham; French forces attacked Quebec City, failed to capture city from British; British ships arrived at Quebec City, French army forced back to Montreal; Governor Vaudreuil surrendered to British army at Montreal
  • (1763) Seven Years War ended with signing of Treaty of Paris; France gave northerly portion of New France to Britain, kept Guadaloupe; Chief Pontiac led raids against British trading posts; British Parliament issued Royal Proclamation to rename New France to Province of Quebec
  • (1764) Civil courts established
  • (1774) First Continental Congress issued Articles of Association, condemned Quebec Act for creating arbitrary government
  • (1775) Green Mountain Boys, led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, raided Fort Saint-Jean; Second Continental Congress wrote open letter inviting people of Canada to join in Revolution; Continental Army invaded Quebec, besieged Fort Saint-Jean; Fort Saint-Jean surrendered; Montreal surrendered to Americans; Green Mountain Boys troops defeated at Quebec City
  • (1776) British, German troops arrived, drove Americans out of province
  • (1784) Colonial petitioners requested British Parliament to create House of Assembly for Province of Quebec without regard to nationality or religion
  • (1786) John Molson founded Molson Breweries
  • (1792) First election of Lower Canada held; first parliament of Lower Canada opened
  • (1804) Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada voted to abolish slavery
  • (1812) War of 1812 - second invasion of Canada by Americans
  • (1818) Frontier between British North America, United States established at 49th northern parallel
  • (1830) Port of Montreal created
  • (1832) Rioting broke out during by-election in Montreal, British soldiers opened fire, three killed; cholera epidemic killed 6,000; Assembly passed law giving full political rights to Jewish citizens of Lower Canada
  • (1837) British attacked village of St. Denis, Patriot forces won; British were victorious in Battle of Saint-Charles between Great Britain and Lower Canada rebels; Patriots took control of Saint-Eustache; Martial law declared in Montreal; British troops sacked and burned village of Saint-Benoit
  • (1838) Robert Nelson, Patriots General, gathered volunteers, Freres chasseurs, sympathetic Americans, launched attack on British in Lower Canada; Nelson proclaimed independence of Lower Canada; amnesty given to all prisoners except eight; Freres chasseurs took positions in Beauharnois, Sainte-Martine, Saint-Mathias; British won Battle of Lacolle; last battle of the Lower Canada Rebellion occurred at Battle of Odelltown
  • (1841) Act of Union passed by British Parliament
  • (1848) Union Act amended, became legal to use French language in Parliament and Courts
  • (1849) Parliament of Canada passed Rebellion Losses Bill, compensated people who suffered property damages during Rebellions of 1837 in Lower Canada; riot started, Parliament of Canada buildings in Montreal burned down

See Also