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Quebec History Timeline

  • (1534) French Explorer, Jacques Cartier, planted cross on Gaspe Peninsula, south shore of Saint Lawrence River, claimed area for France; first province of New France
  • (1535) Expedition led by Jacques Cartier sailed into Saint Lawrence River
  • (1541) Jean-Francois de la Roque de Roberval made lieutenant of New France; given orders to establish colony; Cartier founded Charlesbourg Royal, first French establishment in America
  • (1581 - 1584) Expeditions organized by French merchants explored Canada for fur
  • (1609) Samuel De Champlain joined expedition against Iroquois; French and Hurons victorious
  • (1627) Seigneurial system introduced by King Louis XIV of France, forbade settlement in New France by anyone other than Roman Catholics
  • (1629) French trading post, Tadoussac, captured by brothers David, Lous, Thomas Kirke of England; demanded Champlain to surrender Quebec
  • (1632) Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye signed; Acadia and Quebec returned to France; Couillard-Hebert family received first back slave
  • (1634) Sieur de La Violette founded fur trading post and fort, now Trois Rivieres
  • (1641) French and Iroquois Wars began
  • (1648) Huron country destroyed, Hurons relocated to ile D'Orleans
  • (1663) New France became royal province under King Louis XIV
  • (1665) Carignan-Saleires regiment destroyed five Mohawk villages
  • (1666) Carignan-Saleires soldiers invaded Iroquois territory, burned villages, destroyed crops
  • (1685) King Louis XIV decreed Code Noir (Black Code),ordered all Jews out of French colonial empire; defined slavery rules, restricted activities of free Negroes; forbade any religious activities other than Roman Catholic
  • (1689) Iroquois warriors attacked Lachine settlement, klled or tortured most inhabitants (Lachine Massacre)
  • (1701) 39 First Nation tribes, French Colonial Government signed Great Peace of Montreal
  • (1702) Queen Anne's War between France and Great Britain began
  • (1712) New France extended from Newfoundland to Lake Superior, from Hudson Bay to Gulf of Mexico
  • (1713) Treaty of Utrecht ended Queen Anne's War
  • (1731) Construction began on Chemin du roy (King's Road) between Quebec City and Montreal
  • (1734) Marie-Joseph Angelique, black slave, hanged for burning owner's house
  • (1754) Beginning of French and Indian War between Great Britain and France
  • (1759) Quebec City siege began; British troops defeated French troops in Battle of Plains of Abraham near Quebec City; Quebec City surrendered; government of New France moved to Montreal
  • (1760) French Forces defeated British during Battle of Sainte-Foy on Plains of Abraham; French forces attacked Quebec City, failed to capture city from British; British ships arrived at Quebec City, French army forced back to Montreal; Governor Vaudreuil surrendered to British army at Montreal
  • (1763) Seven Years War ended with signing of Treaty of Paris; France gave northerly portion of New France to Britain, kept Guadaloupe; Chief Pontiac led raids against British trading posts; British Parliament issued Royal Proclamation to rename New France to Province of Quebec
  • (1764) Civil courts established
  • (1774) First Continental Congress issued Articles of Association, condemned Quebec Act for creating arbitrary government
  • (1775) Green Mountain Boys, led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, raided Fort Saint-Jean; Second Continental Congress wrote open letter inviting people of Canada to join in Revolution; Continental Army invaded Quebec, besieged Fort Saint-Jean; Fort Saint-Jean surrendered; Montreal surrendered to Americans; Green Mountain Boys troops defeated at Quebec City
  • (1776) British, German troops arrived, drove Americans out of province
  • (1784) Colonial petitioners requested British Parliament to create House of Assembly for Province of Quebec without regard to nationality or religion
  • (1786) John Molson founded Molson Breweries
  • (1792) First election of Lower Canada held; first parliament of Lower Canada opened
  • (1804) Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada voted to abolish slavery
  • (1812) War of 1812 - second invasion of Canada by Americans
  • (1818) Frontier between British North America, United States established at 49th northern parallel
  • (1830) Port of Montreal created
  • (1832) Rioting broke out during by-election in Montreal, British soldiers opened fire, three killed; cholera epidemic killed 6,000; Assembly passed law giving full political rights to Jewish citizens of Lower Canada
  • (1837) British attacked village of St. Denis, Patriot forces won; British were victorious in Battle of Saint-Charles between Great Britain and Lower Canada rebels; Patriots took control of Saint-Eustache; Martial law declared in Montreal; British troops sacked and burned village of Saint-Benoit
  • (1838) Robert Nelson, Patriots General, gathered volunteers, Freres chasseurs, sympathetic Americans, launched attack on British in Lower Canada; Nelson proclaimed independence of Lower Canada; amnesty given to all prisoners except eight; Freres chasseurs took positions in Beauharnois, Sainte-Martine, Saint-Mathias; British won Battle of Lacolle; last battle of the Lower Canada Rebellion occurred at Battle of Odelltown
  • (1841) Act of Union passed by British Parliament
  • (1848) Union Act amended, became legal to use French language in Parliament and Courts
  • (1849) Parliament of Canada passed Rebellion Losses Bill, compensated people who suffered property damages during Rebellions of 1837 in Lower Canada; riot started, Parliament of Canada buildings in Montreal burned down

About the Author

John Moen is a cartographer who along with his wife are the orignal founders of worldatlas.com. He and his wife, Chris Woolwine-Moen, produced thousands of award-winning maps that are used all over the world and content that aids students, teachers, travelers and parents with their geography and map questions. Today, it's one of the most popular educational sites on the web.

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This page was last updated on July 10, 2020.