Which Countries Border Azerbaijan?

Border checkpoint between Azerbaijan and Georgia. Editorial credit: Dinozzzaver / Shutterstock.com
Border checkpoint between Azerbaijan and Georgia. Editorial credit: Dinozzzaver / Shutterstock.com

Azerbaijan is a democratic republic located in the trans-Caucasia area of Eurasia. The country is dominated by three physical features; the broad flatlands at the center of the nation, the Great Caucasus ranges to the northern side, and the Caspian Sea whose coastlines creates Azerbaijan’s eastern border. Azerbaijan is surrounded by Iran, Armenia, Georgia, Russia, Turkey and the Caspian Sea. Azerbaijan has a population of over 9,911,646 people, and it occupies an area of about 33,400 sq miles. Azerbaijan first gained its independence in 1918, before joining the Soviet Union in 1920. Present-day Azerbaijan declared its independence from the USSR on August 30, 1991.

Countries Surrounding Azerbaijan

1) Russia

Russia is the biggest nation on earth by area which covers about 6,612,100 sq miles. It is the ninth most densely populated state globally with approximately 144 million residents. Over 77% of Russians reside in the western European region of the nation. The country shares a land boundary with Ukraine, China, Finland, North Korea, Kazakhstan, Norway, Latvia, Poland, Estonia, Belarus, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Mongolia. It also shares a maritime border with Alaska and Japan.

The Russian-Azerbaijan border is about 176 miles long. The boundary is on the northern part of Azerbaijan. Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the border was between Azerbaijan SSR and the Russian Soviet Republic. The current boundary was set by the agreement which was signed on October 3, 2010, in Baku. The boundary has three parts; the lowland, Piedmont, and the mountain. The border passes through the River Samur delta in the lowland section. The Russian-Azerbaijan border has a fence with cameras, sensors and barbed wire.

2) Georgia

Georgia is an independent state which is at the crossroad of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Georgia is surrounded by Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia, Russia and the Black Sea. Georgia occupies an area of about 26,900 sq miles, and it has over 3.7 million residents. The Russian Empire annexed it in 1801. Georgia emerged briefly in 1917, but it was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Federation in 1921. It became a union republic after the dissolution of Transcaucasian Federation in 1936. Georgia seceded from the Soviet Union in 1991 and underwent ten years of civil conflicts, economic problems, and secession battles.

The Azerbaijan-Georgia border is about 298 miles long, and it has numerous crossing points. One of the crossing checkpoints is in the district of Balakan, Azerbaijan. The Balakan crossing point is at Postbina, and it is open to everyone. Another crossing point on the boundary is the Red Bridge which is on the road from Ganja to Tbilisi. The current bridge was built during the seventeenth century, but there has been a bridge in this place since the twelfth century. The red-brick bridge arches across River Khrami.

3) Armenia

Armenia is a landlocked Asian state which is in the Southern parts of Caucasus right between the Caspian and the Black seas. Armenia is bounded by Iran, Azerbaijan, Republic of Artsakh, Turkey, and Georgia. Armenia is a multi-party state which occupies an area of about 11,484 sq miles with a population of over 2,924,816. The country’s landscape is mostly mountainous, with some few forests and fast-moving rivers. The country became independent in 1991. The Armenian Apostolic Church is the main religious organization.

The Azerbaijan-Armenian boundary stretches for about 625.78 miles. The southernmost inhabited regions on the border are Agarak and Ganza while the northernmost towns include Berdavan (Armenia) and Kamarli (Azerbaijan). The current border follows the Azerbaijan SSR and Armenia SSR boundary, but it is closed because of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Other than the Nakhchivan exclave, the boundary also has the Barkhudarly and Yukhary Askipara enclaves in Armenia and the Artsvashen enclave in Azerbaijan. A more significant part of the Azerbaijan-Armenian border is in the hilly topography with an elevation of up to 11,155 ft above sea level. The boundary runs through River Aghstafa before passing next to Sevan Lake and Crossing River Hakari and emptying into River Araz.

4) Iran

Iran is an Asian sovereign state with a population of over 81 million people. It is the eighteenth most densely populated nation on earth. Iran has a land area of about 636,372 sq miles, and it is the seventeenth largest in the world and the second biggest Middle Eastern country. The country is bounded by Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, the Oman Gulf, Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. The largest and the capital city of Armenia is Tehran, and it is the leading cultural and economic center in the country. The Urban area in Tehran covers about 675 sq miles, and it has a population of over 8,846,782.

The Iran-Azerbaijan boundary checkpoints have been closed numerous times in the past because of the strained relationship between the two countries. One of the crossing points is in Astara. The towns on both sides of the border are known as Astara. Astara is the capital of the county of Astara in Azerbaijan. The city has over 86,757 residents, and it is a significant tourist destination especially for foreigners from the Caucasus states. The city is home to the first library in Iran. The city serves as an important trade center between the Caucasus nations including Armenia and Iran. Other custom-border checkpoints are in Julfa, Azerbaijan which is separated from its namesake city in Iran by River Araks. The two Julfa towns are linked a railway and road bridge.

5) Turkey

Turkey is the transcontinental state of Eurasia whose territory stretches from Western Asia to Southeastern Europe. Turkey is surrounded by Syria, Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, and Azerbaijan. Its coastline with the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and the Aegean Sea form a part of their border. The largest city in Turkey is Istanbul (the chief commercial and cultural center of Turkey), while its capital city is Ankara. Turkey covers an area of about 302,455 sq miles and has a population of over 80 million.

The Turkey-Azerbaijan border is an 11 miles long boundary situated at the northwestern tip of Azerbaijan and the southeastern part of Turkey. It was established between the Russian SFSR and Turkey on March 16, 1921. The border passes along River Aras which divides the two countries, and the only crossing point is through Umut Bridge.


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