With 919,000 square miles of land, Algeria is the largest country in Africa. It is bordered up north by the Mediterranean Sea with a coastline that is 620 miles long. The expansive country is bordered by Morocco, Mali, Libya, Tunisia, Mauritania, Niger, and Western Sahara. 80% of Algeria's land is made up of desert.
Morocco - 1,559 km
Despite sharing the longest border on this list, Morocco and Algeria have been involved in at least two wars against one another. The first one was the Sand War which took place in 1963 after Morocco claimed two of Algerian provinces, Tindouf and Bechar. International intervention brought the war to an end. The second war was the Western Sahara war which took place between 1975 and 1991. The war was caused by the clamor for the control of the Western Sahara area that the Spanish had just relinquished to Mauritania and Morocco, Algeria wanted the area, and this resulted in a prolonged war that lasted for nearly two decades. Today, relations between the two countries remain strained.
Mali - 1,359 km
The Algeria-Mali border is the second longest border, running for 1,359 km. Relations between the two had been amicable for years until instability caused by insurgents shot up in Mali. Algeria used this as a reason to heighten security at their border with Mali. Movement between the two countries has been restricted ever since. The two countries, however, continue to trade with each other without any complications.
Tunisia - 1,034 km
The border between Algeria and Tunisia runs for 1,034 km. The border between the two countries is made mostly of barren desert land dotted with several crossing points. Algeria’s relation with Tunisia is friendlier compared to the other bordering countries. Tunisia has always tried to align itself with Algeria for years, and the two have cooperated through trade and military expertise exchanges.
Libya - 989 km
Libya’s border with Algeria runs for 989 km. Two main border crossing points between the two functioned smoothly during Gaddafi’s reign. The two countries have not been in the best of terms for long but things however turned for the worst after the fall of Gaddafi. The Algerian government have deployed its forces along the border to stop any insurgents from infiltrating the country. Algeria is currently exploring plans to build a wall along their border with Libya.
Niger - 951 km
The border between Niger and Algeria cover a distance of 951 km. The mostly desert land border between the two has very few crossing points and this has increased vigilance by the Algerian side on the border. However, the two countries still conduct business together and are part of the economic union in the region.
Mauritania - 460 km
The border between Algeria and Mauritania runs for 460 km. The border between the two countries is among Algeria's shortest, and for long it has remained closed in a move initiated by both sides. The two countries can be described as friendly. Mauritania has become the new battlefront for Algeria against Morocco with each trying their best to undermine the influence of the other through trade agreements and investments. The latest move by Algeria was the opening of their border with Mauritania to allow easy movement of traders.
Western Sahara - 41 km
The border between Algeria and Western Sahara covers a distance of 41 km. The border between Western Sahara and Algeria continues to be a problematic area. Western Sahara is an autonomous region of 500,000 inhabitants, and the country has been at the center of the disagreement between Algeria and Morocco. Morocco claimed the region for itself after it annexed it in the wake of the Spanish exit in 1975. The people of Western Sahara have however been resisting this by insisting on being an independent nation, a claim fully backed by Algeria. This has contributed to the worsening of the relationship between Morocco and Algeria.