1. World Map/
  2. North America/
  3. USA /
  4. Texas


Texas Description

Texas History

texas The first inhabitants of this land now called Texas arrived here around 10,000 B.C; they hunted giant bison and mammoths, and over many centuries a wide variety of Indian cultures developed and prospered. These earliest Texans arrived via the ice bridge that once spanned from Russia to Alaska, and then traveled south to somewhat milder climates.

The Spanish began their conquest of Texas in 1519 when Alonso Álvarez de Pineda mapped the coastline. In 1528, Cabeza de Vaca shipwrecked near Galveston, would later refer to his discoveries in Texas as the "Seven Cities of Gold" and the legend quickly grew.

Searching for those "Cities" the Spanish explorer Coronado scoured much of the southwest; he never found them, but Spain's claim on the land grew stronger and their first mission, Corpus Christi de la Isleta, was established near present-day El Paso in 1682.

In 1685, LaSalle, the French explorer, arrived along the Gulf of Mexico coastline and he established Fort St. Louis on the edge of Matagorda Bay. This was the first claim in Texas by the French. LaSalle was later killed by his own men, and within five years Indians attacks and diseases virtually wiped out the French forces.

Beginning in 1690 the Spanish established a large series of Catholic missions across the southwest. In 1718 the Mission San Antonio de Valero, (the Alamo) was built on a plot of land in present-day San Antonio and some original parts of this historic place still stand.

stephen f austinMexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, and Stephen F. Austin, known as "The Father of Texas" received permission from the Mexican government to form a colony in southeast Texas; this was the first official Anglo-American settlement in the area.

Years went quickly by and soon regional tensions escalated because of cultural, political and religious differences between the upstart American settlers and the Mexican government. Mexico sent troops to tighten their control, and on October 2, 1835, the first battle for Texas independence, the Battle of Gonzales took place.

On March 6, 1836, the historic Battle of the Alamo was over and all of the brave defenders of Texas (about 190) were slaughtered by a Mexican army estimated at 4,000 to 5,000 soldiers strong. Texan heroes killed included David Crockett, Jim Bowie and William B. Travis.

The Texas Declaration of Independence was enacted that same year and the final battle with Mexico, the Battle of San Jacinto (resulting in Texas' independence from Mexico) took place near Houston; General Santa Anna's entire Mexican force of 1,600 was killed or captured by General Sam Houston's army of 800 Texans; only nine Texans died.

sam houston Sam Houston, a Virginia native, went on to become President of the Republic of Texas twice. Through his efforts, Texas was subsequently annexed to the United States as the 28th state on December 29, 1845.

During America's Civil War, Texas seceded and joined the Confederate States of America. Several battles were fought on its soil and on June 19th, 1865, (as the war was ending) General Gordon Granger, commander of the U.S. troops in Texas, arrived in Galveston and issued the order that the Emancipation Proclamation was now in place, thus ending slavery in Texas.

After the period of reconstruction, Texas was readmitted to the United States on March 30, 1870. The present state constitution was ratified on February 15, 1876.

During its rich history there have flown six flags over Texas, including those of Spain, France, United Mexican States, the Confederate States of America, the Republic of Texas and the United States of America. With all the history-changing events that have taken place in Texas, it's no surprise that 11,621 historical markers are found within its borders.

Texas Cities, Counties & Area Codes

City County Area Code
Palestine Anderson 903
Andrews Andrews 432
Lufkin Angelina 936
Rockport Aransas 361
Holliday Archer 940
Claude Armstrong 806
Pleasanton Atascosa 830
Sealy Austin 979
Muleshoe Bailey 806
Pipe Creek Bandera 830
Bastrop Bastrop 512
Seymour Baylor 940
Beeville Bee 361
Killeen Bell 254
San Antonio Bexar 210
Blanco Blanco 830
Gail Borden 432
Clifton Bosque 254
Texarkana Bowie 903
Pearland Brazoria 281
College Station Brazos 979
Alpine Brewster 432
Silverton Briscoe 806
Falfurrias Brooks 361
Brownwood Brown 325
Caldwell Burleson 979
Marble Falls Burnet 830
Lockhart Caldwell 512
Port Lavaca Calhoun 361
Clyde Callahan 325
Brownsville Cameron 956
Pittsburg Camp 903
Panhandle Carson 806
Atlanta Cass 903
Dimmitt Castro 806
Baytown Chambers 281
Jacksonville Cherokee 903
Childress Childress 940
Henrietta Clay 940
Morton Cochran 806
Robert Lee Coke 325
Coleman Coleman 325
Plano Collin 972
McKinney Collin 972
Wellington Collingsworth 806
Columbus Colorado 979
New Braunfels Comal 830
Comanche Comanche 325
Eden Concho 325
Gainesville Cooke 940
Copperas Cove Coryell 254
Paducah Cottle 806
Crane Crane 432
Ozona Crockett 325
Ralls Crosby 806
Van Horn Culberson 915
Dalhart Dallam 806
Grand Prairie Dallas 972
Irving Dallas 972
Garland Dallas 972
Dallas Dallas 214
Mesquite Dallas 972
Lamesa Dawson 806
Cuero De Witt 361
Hereford Deaf Smith 806
Cooper Delta 903
Frisco Denton 972
Lewisville Denton 972
Denton Denton 940
Spur Dickens 806
Carrizo Springs Dimmit 830
Clarendon Donley 806
San Diego Duval 361
Cisco Eastland 254
Odessa Ector 432
Rocksprings Edwards 830
El Paso El Paso 915
Waxahachie Ellis 972
Stephenville Erath 254
Marlin Falls 254
Bonham Fannin 903
La Grange Fayette 979
Rotan Fisher 325
Floydada Floyd 806
Crowell Foard 254
Richmond Fort Bend 281
Sugar Land Fort Bend 281
Mount Vernon Franklin 903
Fairfield Freestone 903
Pearsall Frio 830
Seminole Gaines 432
League City Galveston 281
Post Garza 806
Fredericksburg Gillespie 830
Garden City Glasscock 432
Goliad Goliad 361
Gonzales Gonzales 830
Pampa Gray 806
Sherman Grayson 903
Longview Gregg 903
Navasota Grimes 936
Seguin Guadalupe 830
Plainview Hale 806
Memphis Hall 806
Hamilton Hamilton 254
Spearman Hansford 806
Quanah Hardeman 254
Lumberton Hardin 409
Spring Harris 281
Katy Harris 281
Cypress Harris 281
Humble Harris 713
Houston Harris 713
Pasadena Harris 713
Marshall Harrison 903
Hartley Hartley 806
Haskell Haskell 940
San Marcos Hays 512
Canadian Hemphill 806
Athens Henderson 903
Mission Hidalgo 956
McAllen Hidalgo 956
Edinburg Hidalgo 956
Hillsboro Hill 254
Levelland Hockley 806
Granbury Hood 817
Sulphur Springs Hopkins 903
Crockett Houston 936
Big Spring Howard 432
Fort Hancock Hudspeth 915
Greenville Hunt 903
Borger Hutchinson 806
Mertzon Irion 325
Jacksboro Jack 940
Edna Jackson 361
Jasper Jasper 409
Fort Davis Jeff Davis 432
Beaumont Jefferson 409
Hebbronville Jim Hogg 361
Alice Jim Wells 361
Burleson Johnson 817
Anson Jones 325
Kenedy Karnes 830
Forney Kaufman 972
Boerne Kendall 830
Sarita Kenedy 361
Jayton Kent 806
Kerrville Kerr 830
Junction Kimble 325
Guthrie King 806
Brackettville Kinney 830
Kingsville Kleberg 361
Munday Knox 940
Cotulla La Salle 830
Paris Lamar 903
Littlefield Lamb 806
Lampasas Lampasas 512
Yoakum Lavaca 361
Giddings Lee 979
Buffalo Leon 903
Dayton Liberty 936
Mexia Limestone 254
Booker Lipscomb 806
George West Live Oak 361
Kingsland Llano 325
Mentone Loving 432
Lubbock Lubbock 806
Tahoka Lynn 806
Madisonville Madison 936
Jefferson Marion 903
Stanton Martin 432
Mason Mason 325
Bay City Matagorda 979
Eagle Pass Maverick 830
Brady McCulloch 325
Waco McLennan 254
Tilden McMullen 361
Hondo Medina 830
Menard Menard 325
Midland Midland 432
Rockdale Milam 512
Goldthwaite Mills 325
Colorado City Mitchell 325
Bowie Montague 940
Spring Montgomery 281
Conroe Montgomery 936
Dumas Moore 806
Daingerfield Morris 903
Matador Motley 806
Nacogdoches Nacogdoches 936
Corsicana Navarro 903
Newton Newton 409
Sweetwater Nolan 325
Corpus Christi Nueces 361
Perryton Ochiltree 806
Boys Ranch Oldham 806
Orange Orange 409
Mineral Wells Palo Pinto 940
Carthage Panola 903
Weatherford Parker 817
Friona Parmer 806
Fort Stockton Pecos 432
Livingston Polk 936
Amarillo Potter 806
Presidio Presidio 432
Emory Rains 903
Amarillo Randall 806
Big Lake Reagan 325
Leakey Real 830
Clarksville Red River 903
Pecos Reeves 432
Refugio Refugio 361
Miami Roberts 806
Hearne Robertson 979
Rockwall Rockwall 972
Ballinger Runnels 325
Henderson Rusk 903
Hemphill Sabine 409
San Augustine San Augustine 936
Shepherd San Jacinto 936
Portland San Patricio 361
San Saba San Saba 325
Eldorado Schleicher 325
Snyder Scurry 325
Albany Shackelford 325
Center Shelby 936
Stratford Sherman 806
Tyler Smith 903
Glen Rose Somervell 254
Rio Grande City Starr 956
Breckenridge Stephens 254
Sterling City Sterling 325
Aspermont Stonewall 940
Sonora Sutton 325
Tulia Swisher 806
Arlington Tarrant 817
Fort Worth Tarrant 817
Abilene Taylor 325
Sanderson Terrell 432
Brownfield Terry 806
Throckmorton Throckmorton 940
Mount Pleasant Titus 903
San Angelo Tom Green 325
Austin Travis 512
Trinity Trinity 936
Woodville Tyler 409
Gilmer Upshur 903
McCamey Upton 432
Uvalde Uvalde 830
Del Rio Val Verde 830
Wills Point Van Zandt 903
Victoria Victoria 361
Huntsville Walker 936
Hempstead Waller 979
Monahans Ward 432
Brenham Washington 979
Laredo Webb 956
El Campo Wharton 979
Shamrock Wheeler 806
Wichita Falls Wichita 940
Vernon Wilbarger 940
Raymondville Willacy 956
Round Rock Williamson 512
Floresville Wilson 830
Kermit Winkler 432
Decatur Wise 940
Mineola Wood 903
Denver City Yoakum 806
Graham Young 940
Zapata Zapata 956
Crystal City Zavala 830

About the Author

John Moen is a cartographer who along with his wife are the orignal founders of worldatlas.com. He and his wife, Chris Woolwine-Moen, produced thousands of award-winning maps that are used all over the world and content that aids students, teachers, travelers and parents with their geography and map questions. Today, it's one of the most popular educational sites on the web.

Trending on WorldAtlas

USA States

This page was last updated on July 10, 2020.