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Ohio Description

Ohio History

Much like the U.S. State of West Virginia, the Adena Culture, also known as the Mound Builders, originally inhabited Ohio. These people lived in the Ohio Valley for many centuries and remnants of their fascinating culture remain to this day as an integral part of Ohio history. A variety of Native American tribes followed the Adenas into this fertile landscape; they lived happily on indigenous animals, beans and corn, but their idyllic lifestyle would soon change forever.

lasalle In 1669, the French explorer Robert de La Salle traveled through the Ohio River Valley; he claimed the entire area for France, and his King, Louis XIV. Soon the flood gates opened, and this land beyond the Allegheny Mountains proved irresistible, especially to the British.

In 1750, Christopher Gist, a surveyor for the British "Ohio Company" reported that "This Ohio Country is fine, rich, level land, well-timbered with large walnut, ash, sugar trees ... it is well watered and full of beautiful natural meadows, abounding with turkeys, deer, elk and most sorts of game, particularly buffaloes. In short, it wants nothing but cultivation to make it a most delightful country." A tempting testimonial indeed to would be settlers and entrepreneurs.

This land claimed by France and coveted by Britain, soon was ground-zero in the French and Indian War (1754-1763), as both European powers fought for total control of North America. In the end, the British dealt crushing blows to the French and their Indian allies.

Shortly after that conflict's end, the British placed this land above the Ohio River within the boundaries of Canada. That action, and new taxes imposed by England on the original thirteen colonies, were sparks that ignited the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).

ohio river During the War for Independence, the remaining Native Americans fought on both sides of the conflict. When the British army finally surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia in 1781, the British (by terms of the 1783 Treaty of Paris) ceded all claims to the Ohio Territory.

In 1787, the United States formed a governmental region called the Northwest Territory. It encompassed all of its land to the west of Pennsylvania and northwest of the Ohio River, including present-day Ohio, as well as modern-day Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and the northeastern edges of Minnesota.

With vast quantities of choice land now available, thousands of settlers (many from Pennsylvania and New York) arrived on barges and flatboats along the very-navigable waters of the Ohio River.

By 1801, the Ohio Territory's population surged to nearly 50,000. By 1802, because of its rapid growth, the U.S. Congress authorized the residents to form the state of Ohio and join the Union. A state convention drafted a constitution, and in 1803, Ohio entered the Union as the 17th state with Chillicothe as its first capital; Columbus became the permanent capital in 1816.

Ohio Cities, Counties & Area Codes

City County Area Code
West Union Adams 937
Lima Allen 419
Ashland Ashland 419
Ashtabula Ashtabula 440
Athens Athens 740
Wapakoneta Auglaize 419
Saint Clairsville Belmont 740
Florence Boone 859
Mount Orab Brown 937
Hamilton Butler 513
Carrollton Carroll 330
Urbana Champaign 937
Springfield Clark 937
Loveland Clermont 513
Wilmington Clinton 937
Salem Columbiana 330
Coshocton Coshocton 740
Bucyrus Crawford 419
Cleveland Cuyahoga 216
Greenville Darke 937
Defiance Defiance 419
Delaware Delaware 740
Sandusky Erie 419
Lancaster Fairfield 740
Washington Court House Fayette 740
Columbus Franklin 614
Swanton Fulton 419
Gallipolis Gallia 740
Chardon Geauga 440
Dayton Greene 937
Cambridge Guernsey 740
Cincinnati Hamilton 513
Findlay Hancock 419
Kenton Hardin 419
Cadiz Harrison 740
Napoleon Henry 419
Hillsboro Highland 937
Logan Hocking 740
Millersburg Holmes 330
Norwalk Huron 419
Jackson Jackson 740
Steubenville Jefferson 740
Mount Vernon Knox 740
Mentor Lake 440
Ironton Lawrence 740
Newark Licking 740
Bellefontaine Logan 937
Lorain Lorain 440
Toledo Lucas 419
London Madison 740
Youngstown Mahoning 330
Marion Marion 740
Medina Medina 330
Pomeroy Meigs 740
Celina Mercer 419
Troy Miami 937
Woodsfield Monroe 740
Dayton Montgomery 937
McConnelsville Morgan 740
Mount Gilead Morrow 419
Zanesville Muskingum 740
Caldwell Noble 740
Port Clinton Ottawa 419
Paulding Paulding 419
Thornville Perry 740
Circleville Pickaway 740
Waverly Pike 740
Kent Portage 330
Eaton Preble 937
Ottawa Putnam 419
Mansfield Richland 419
Chillicothe Ross 740
Fremont Sandusky 419
Portsmouth Scioto 740
Tiffin Seneca 419
Sidney Shelby 937
Canton Stark 330
Akron Summit 330
Warren Trumbull 330
New Philadelphia Tuscarawas 330
Marysville Union 937
Van Wert Van Wert 419
McArthur Vinton 740
Mason Warren 513
Marietta Washington 740
Wooster Wayne 330
Bryan Williams 419
Perrysburg Wood 419
Upper Sandusky Wyandot 419

About the Author

John Moen is a cartographer who along with his wife are the orignal founders of worldatlas.com. He and his wife, Chris Woolwine-Moen, produced thousands of award-winning maps that are used all over the world and content that aids students, teachers, travelers and parents with their geography and map questions. Today, it's one of the most popular educational sites on the web.

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This page was last updated on April 7, 2017.