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Ireland

Ireland's Information

Flag of Ireland
Land Area 68,883 km2
Water Area 1,390 km2
Total Area 70,273km2 (#118)
Population 4,952,473 (#121)
Population Density 71.90/km2
Government Type Parliamentary Republic
GDP (PPP) $322.00 Billion
GDP Per Capita $69,400
Currency Euro (EUR)
More Information Ireland
Largest Cities

The last Ice Age melted away some 10,000 years ago, and that dramatic event created the English Channel, Irish Sea and hundreds of rivers and lakes. Great Britain and Ireland (long attached to the European continent) were now islands, and cultural history was about to change.


The Celtic people occupied great stretches of land across central Europe by 500 BC. They first arrived in Ireland around 300 BC, subsequently controlling and influencing this land that the powerful Roman culture never reached.

pope celestine The Pope in Rome (Celestinus the First) sent the first Christian missionaries to Ireland in the 5th century, including St. Patrick. The Catholic faith spread rapidly, and by the turn of the century abbeys and monasteries were beacons of hope across Ireland.

This somewhat peaceful Celtic world was first invaded by the Vikings in the late 8th century. Their overpowering raids of monasteries and villages continued through the 10th century, and they eventually built permanent power base settlements at Cork, Dublin and Waterford.

Localized fighting over land and property continued for decades, but over time, some Celtic family groups and Vikings reached alliances - sort of a workable, live together understanding. That ended when the Irish King Brian Boru defeated the Danish Vikings in 1014.

In 1169, aggressive English and Norman forces crossed the Irish Sea; Dublin (a Viking stronghold) and other cities quickly fell, and the all-powerful Pope (in Rome) declared that Henry II (the English King) was now the "Lord of Ireland." As you can imagine, that didn't sit very well with the locals.

Centuries of conflicts and localized wars continued, and finally, the embattled Irish chiefs were forced to retreat into the northern province of Ulster (parts of which are now Northern Ireland). By 1607, most, if not all, would flee this land and the English saw an opening.

They quickly instigated a policy called 'plantation,' where waves of Scottish and English Protestants literally took the available land from the now weakened Catholics, laying the groundwork for the strong differences and bitterness that remain to this day.

Understandably, the now angry and proud Celts rebelled, and bloody riots soon followed. Then, after the native Irish supported the losing side in England's Civil War, the worst for Ireland was yet to come.

oliver cromwell In 1649, Oliver Cromwell, England's "Protestant" Lord Protector, (on the winning side in that war) led a punitive expedition into Ireland. The massacre was bloody, brutal and most destructive - and not yet forgotten.

As the English enforced strict (none of this, none of that) new laws on the Catholics, Protestant powers increased, and Ireland and its northern areas grew further apart, primarily for economic reasons.


This page was last updated on April 7, 2017.

Ireland Trivia

What Languages Are Spoken In Ireland?

The two principal languages of Ireland are English and Irish. Irish is considered the official and national language of the Republic of Ireland; Northern Ireland has no official language. However, English has been the dominant spoken language in both political areas since the end of the 19th century. The two regional languages of Ireland are Ulster Scots and Shelta. Minority languages in Ireland are spoken mainly by immigrant groups. The most common of these include Polish, German, French, Japanese, and Mandarin.

What Languages Are Spoken In Ireland?

What is the National Animal of Ireland?

The national land animal is not very clear although the Irish Hare has been treated as the national animal. It can be noted that the hare was not the original idea for a national animal. Initially the Irish elk is what was defined as the national animal, an iconic mammal that was found in the whole of Northern Europe. Since this mammal no longer exists, the next possible contender for the spot was the red deer. This was not well received as its origin was also not very clear. Some people still consider the red deer as the national animal.

What is the National Animal of Ireland?

What is the Biggest Religion in Ireland?

Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion in Ireland and the largest Christian denomination with a population of 78.8%. The population of Catholics in Ireland is about 4.7 million

Major Religions in the Republic of Ireland

Does It Snow In Ireland?

Although most of Ireland's winter precipitation comes in the form of rain, the mountains and hills receive about 30 days of snow annually. The Wicklow Mountains get over 60 days of snow annually.

Does It Snow In Ireland?

Is Ireland a Country?

The Republic of Ireland is a sovereign nation in the north western region of Europe. Its capital city is Dublin, which is also the largest city in the country. The country is located on the island of Ireland, along with Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. Besides Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland is bordered by the Irish Sea, Saint George’s Channel, Celtic Sea, and Atlantic Ocean. Ireland covers an area of 70,273 square kilometers and has a population of about 4.76 million inhabitants.

Is Ireland a Country?

What Continent is Ireland In?

Ireland is an island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, and is part of the continent of Europe.

What Continent is Ireland In?

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