1. World Map /
  2. Asia/
  3. Middle East/
  4. Turkmenistan/
  5. Turkmenistan Timeline

Turkmenistan History Timeline

Turkmenistan's Information

Flag of Turkmenistan
Land Area 469,930 km2
Water Area 18,170 km2
Total Area 488,100km2 (#52)
Population 5,291,317 (#119)
Population Density 11.26/km2
Government Type Presidential Republic; Authoritarian
GDP (PPP) $94.72 Billion
GDP Per Capita $17,300
Currency Manat (TMT)
More Information Turkmenistan
Largest Cities


  • (600's BC) Turkmenistan was part of Persian Empire created by Cyrus the Great
  • (400's BC) Central Asia was conquered by Alexander the Great
600's AD - 1800's
  • (600's) Central Asia conquered by Arabs, converted to Islam
  • (900 - 1200) Region conquered by Genghis Khan; Mongols, Ohjuz Seljuk tribes immigrated from north
  • (1400 - 1600) Northern part of (present day) Turkmenistan ruled by Uzbed states of Khiva and Bukhara, southern part became under Persian rule
  • (1881) After Battle of Gok Tepe, Turkmenistan was incorporated into Russian Turkestan
  • (1916) Turkmens, Central Asians protested Russian decree conscripting them for non-combatant duties
  • (1921) Turkmenistan formed part of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR)
  • (1925) Turkmenistan became fully-fledged constituent republic of USSR
  • (1920's – 1930's) Protests against Soviet programs of agricultural collectivization, secularization
  • (1948) Earthquake devastated Ashgabat, over 100,000 killed
  • (1990 - 1967) Following completion of Karakum Canal, cotton production expanded in Turkmenistan
  • (1985) Saparmyrat Niyazov became leader of Turkmen Communist Party
  • (1989) Turkmen opposition set up Agzybirlik people's front
  • (1990) Turkmen Communist Party banned Agzybirlik people's front
  • (1990) Turkmen Parliament declared sovereignty, Saparmyrat Niyazov elected chairman
  • (1991) Saparmyrat Niyazov supported attempted coup against Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet leader
  • (1991) Turkmenistan declared independence just before collapse of USSR, joined the Commonwealth of Independent States
  • (1992) New constitution adopted, president became head of government and head of state
  • (1992) Saparmyrat Niyazov re-elected
  • (1993) Manat introduced as national currency, economic reform began, foreign investment in oil and gas reserves encouraged
  • (1994) Saparmyrat Niyazov's term extended until 2002 by a referendum
  • (1997) Private ownership of land legalized
  • (1998) Natural gas pipline to Iran opened
  • (1999) Saparmyrat Niyazov voted president for life by Parliament
  • (1999) Death penalty abolished
  • (2000) President Niyazov announced he would step down by 2010, when he reached the age of 70
  • (2000) Plans for artificial lake to be built in Karakum desert announced. Scientists warned the plan could wreck the local environment
  • (2002) President Niyazov renamed the months of the year after his mother, a book he authored, the Ruhnama, and himself
  • (2002) President Niyazov's motorcade fired upon in capital by mercenaries acting for exiled opposition leaders, no injuries
  • (2002) Boris Shikhmuradov, opposition activist and former foreign minister, arrested for masterminding attack on President Niyazov's motorcade, sentenced to life imprisonment, 40 others convicted and jailed
  • (2003) Agreement signed with Russian Gazprom, Russia would buy 60bn cubic meters of Turkmen gas annually
  • (2003) 1993 dual citizenship agreement with Russia was cancelled, diplomatic row with Russia followed
  • (2004) President ordered giant ice palace to be built in the desert
  • (2004) Agreement on water resources, declaration of friendship signed by Turkmen and Uzbek presidents
  • (2005) Deputy Prime Minister Elly Kurbanmuradov, senior figure in energy sector was fired, jailed for 25 years on corruption charges
  • (2005) Head of presidential administration, Rejep Saparov, fired, sentenced to jail for 20 years on corruption charges
  • (2006) Substantial cuts to state pensions ordered by President Niyazov
  • (2006) Agreement signed with Beijing to build pipeline to supply Turkmen gas to China
  • (2006) Gazprom in Russia agreed to pay 54% more for Turkmen gas supplies
  • (2006) President Niyazov died of heart failure
  • (2007) Kurbanguly Berdmukhamedov won presidential election
  • (2007) Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan agreed to build new pipeline north of Caspian Sea
  • (2008) Gas supplies to Iran were cut by Turkmenistan, blamed technical problem and failure to pay by Iran. Iran accused Turkmenistan of wanting to double price
  • (2008) Turkmenistan reverted to traditional Georgian calendar
  • (2008) New constitution approved, included new larger, directly-elected Parliament, mulit-party system
  • (2008) First elections held under new constitution
  • (2009) Turkmenistan cut imports to Russia following explosion on main gas pipeline. Turkmenistan blamed Russia.
  • (2009) Pipeline for gas exports to China opened
  • (2010) Second gas pipeline to Iran opened
  • (2010) Turkmenistan agreed to supply up to 40bn cubic meters of gas annually for Nabucco pipeline
  • (2011) Explosion of stores of fireworks in Abadan caused widespread casualties and mass evacuation
  • (2011) Auditors confirmed Turkmenistan holds world's second largest gas field
  • (2012) President Kurbanguly Berdymukhamedov won new five-year term in presidential elections
This page was last updated on April 7, 2017.

Turkmenistan Trivia

What is the biggest city in Turkmenistan?

Ashgabat city is the largest city in Turkmenistan with a population of around 880,000 people.

The Biggest Cities In Turkmenistan

Which Languages are Spoken in Turkmenistan?

Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan.

What Languages Are Spoken In Turkmenistan?

What is the Culture of Turkmenistan Like?

Turkmenistan is a country located in Central Asia, formerly known as Turkmenia. The capital city is Ashgabat, and even though the official language in the state is Turkmen, Russian is spoken by a majority of the population living in the urban areas. The state has a total area of about 189,660 square miles, and the population was estimated at 5,662,544 in 2016. In 1995, Turkmenistan was declared a neutral state. The Turkmen people have been nomads and horsemen since ancient times.

The Culture Of Turkmenistan

What is the Door to Hell?

The Door to Hell refers to a surreal feature on the barren landscape of the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan. The feature is a gaping crater on the surface of the land that was created by a mining miscalculation in a natural gas field.

The Darvaza Gas Crater: the Door to Hell

What Kind of Government Does Turkmenistan Have?

Turkmenistan is a presidential republic where the President is both the Head of State and the Head of Government of the country.

What Type Of Government Does Turkmenistan Have?

What is the Tallest Mountain in Turkmenistan?

The tallest mountain in Turkmenistan is Mount Damavand, which stands at 18,410 feet. The volcanic mountain is in the middle of the Elburz Range.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites In Turkmenistan

About the Author

John Moen is a cartographer who along with his wife are the orignal founders of worldatlas.com. He and his wife, Chris Woolwine-Moen, produced thousands of award-winning maps that are used all over the world and content that aids students, teachers, travelers and parents with their geography and map questions. Today, it's one of the most popular educational sites on the web.

Trending on WorldAtlas

Countries of Asia