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Egypt History Timeline

Egypt's Information

Flag of Egypt
Land Area 995,450 km2
Water Area 6,000 km2
Total Area 1,001,450km2 (#29)
Population 94,666,993 (#15)
Population Density 95.10/km2
Government Type Presidential Republic
GDP (PPP) $1,110.00 Billion
GDP Per Capita $12,100
Currency Pound (EGP)
Largest Cities
Prehistoric Egypt
  • (10,500 BC) wild grain harvesting began along the Nile River Delta
  • (8000 BC) humans began migrating to the Nile, developing a more centralized and settled society
  • (6000 BC) single-sailed row boats were depicted in Egyptian rock art
  • (4th millennium BC) Gerzean tomb-building began
3rd millennium BC
  • (3900 BC) increasingly dry conditions in the Sahara caused migration to the Nile Valley
  • (3100 BC) Upper and Lower Egypt unified by Pharaoh Narmer
  • (3100 BC) the early Dynastic Period began; hieroglyphics developed as a formal writing system
  • (3000 BC) Egyptians began to measure time based on a calendar of three natural cycles: the solar day, the lunar month, and the solar year
2nd millennium BC
  • (2890 BC) the second dynasty in Egypt founded by Hetepsekhemwy
  • (2800 BC) mining of the Sinai began
  • (2700 BC) papyrus, a thin paper-like material, was developed for writing on
  • (2660 BC) the first fortress on the Nile is built by Pharaoh Kasekhemwy following the unification of north and south Egypt
  • (2650 BC) the Step Pyramid at Saqqara was built for King Djoser, making it the first Egyptian pyramid
  • (2649 BC) the third dynasty is founded by Zanakht
  • (2575 BC) the Great Pyramids of Egypt were built in Dahshur and Giza; the 4th dynasty is founded by Sneferu
  • (2515 BC) the Sphinx is built for Khephren
  • (2465 BC) the 5th dynasty is founded by Userkhaf
  • (2184 BC) Egypt's Old Kingdom crumbled after the death of Pepi II
  • (2134 BC) Egypt is divided into the two smaller states of Memphis in the north and Thebes in the south
  • (2055 BC) the age of the Middle Kingdom began
  • (2040 BC) Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I reunited Egpyt, making Thebes the capital
  • (2000 BC) obelisks are constructed at Heliopolis
1st millennium BC
  • (1991 BC) Amenemhet I seized power during the 12th dynasty and moved the capital of Egypt to Ith-Tawy; the "Wall of the Prince" is erected in Sinai to protect Egypt from invasion
  • (1962 BC) Senusret I succeeded Amenemhet and expands the region; fortress were built at Semna and Kerma
  • (1640 BC) Hyksos, a Semitic people from Palestine, seized power in Northern Egypt along the Delta; horse-driven chariots are introduced
  • (1550 BC) the age of the New Kingdom began under the ruling of Ahmose I
  • (1532 BC) the Hyksos are defeated and expelled from Egypt by Ahmose I
  • (1525 BC) Ahmose I dies and is succeeded by Amenhotep I
  • (1504 BC) Tuthmosis I succeeded Amenhotep
  • (1492 BC) Tuthmosis became first pharaoh buried in the "Valley of the Kings"
  • (1458 BC) Tuthmosis III conquered Syria
  • (1450 BC) Egyptians began using the sundial
  • (1319 BC) Horemheb moved the capital back to Memphis
  • (1307 BC) Horemheb is succeeded by Ramesses I; the capital of Egypt moved to Avaris
  • (1300 BC) Egyptians build a canal connecting the Nile River and the Red Sea
600 BC - 0 AD
  • (669 BC) Egypt conquered by Assyrians and Mesopotamia
  • (332 BC) Alexander the Great invaded Egypt; the New Kingdom ended ushering in an era ruled by Greek Kings; the city of Alexandria is founded
  • (196 BC) the Rosetta Stone is carved in Greek and Egyptian
  • (51 BC) Cleopatra VII becomes queen Egypt
  • (31 BC) Greek ruling of Egypt ended after the Roman conquest
100s AD - 1800s
  • (250 AD) Diophantus wrote "Arithmetica" on algebraic equations and the theory of numbers
  • (394 AD) the last hieroglyph is inscribed at Philae
  • (641 AD) Arabs conquered Egypt, ending Roman rule; Egyptians converted to Islam
  • (642 AD) the library of Alexandria is destroyed
  • (969 AD) Cairo established as capital of Egypt
  • (1517) Egypt is absorbed into the Ottoman Empire
  • (1859) construction began on the Suez Canal
  • (1869) Suez Canal is completed
  • (1882) British troops invaded Egypt


  • (1914) Egypt became a British protectorate
  • (1922) Egypt gained independence; Faud I becomes king
  • (1928) the Muslim Brotherhood is founded
  • (1948) Egypt, along with Iraq, Jordan, and Syria attacked the new state of Israel
  • (1952) anti-British riots erupted in Cairo, at least 20 killed
  • (1953) Muhammad Najib staged coup; Egypt declared a republic with Najib as president
  • (1954) Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes prime minister; remaining British forces vacated
  • (1956) Egypt invaded by Britain, France, and Israel following the nationalization of Suez Canal, a ceasefire is issued one month later
  • (1958) Egypt and Syria joined to form the United Arab Republic (UAR)
  • (1961) Syria withdrew from UAR union with Egypt; Egypt remained as the UAR
  • (1967) Egypt and Jordan signed defense pact
  • (1967) six day war began with Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and Syria; Israel gained control of Sinai, Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem, and the West Bank
  • (1970) Anwar al-Sadat became president following the death of Nasser
  • (1971) Egypt and the Soviet Union signed a Treaty of Friendship
  • (1971) a new constitution is introduced; Egypt is renamed the Arab Republic of Egypt
  • (1971) the Aswan High Dam is completed
  • (1975) the Suez Canal is reopened after its closure during the six day war in 1967
  • (1976) the Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union is ended
  • (1978) a peace treaty with Israel is signed
  • (1981) Anwar al-Sadat is assassinated; Hosni Mubarak is assigned president
  • (1989) Egypt rejoined the Arab League
  • (1997) 58 tourists are killed by gunmen from Egypt's Islamic Group (al-jama'ah al'islamiyah)
  • (1999) Mubarak entered his 4th term in office
  • (2000) an agreement between Egypt, Lebanon, and Syria is reached for a pipeline to carry Egyptian gas under the Mediterranean to Tripoli
  • (2004) Israeli tourists attacked on Sinai peninsula, 34 people are killed
  • (2005) anti-government activists stage demonstrations
  • (2005) a constitutional amendment allowing multiple candidates in presidential elections is backed by a referendum vote
  • (2005) clashes between police and opposers of the Muslim Brotherhood erupted following the Parliamentary polls
  • (2006) a ferry carrying 1,400 passengers from Saudi Arabia to Egypt sinks in the Red Sea killing nearly 1,000 people
  • (2011) Egyptians staged nationwide demonstrations against President Mubarak; Mubarak stepped down amidst protests, turning power over to the military; the parliament is dissolved and the constitution is suspended
  • (2012) new parliamentary and presidential elections are held; Mohamed Morsi is elected president
  • (2012) Morsi granted himself greater power and immunity; widespread protests reignited
  • (2013) a period of civil unrest continued with mass protesting; Morsi is deposed of in a coup headed by Abdul Fatah al-Sisi and the Egyptian armed forces on July 3rd, and is replaced by the chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court
  • (2013) a month-long state of emergency is declared across Egypt amidst widespread and bloodied protests
  • (2014) a new constitution (prepared in 2013) was enacted on January 18th after a 98% approval of the people's votes; presidential and parliamentary elections are expected to be held in the following 6-months
  • (2014) Morsi's supporters were sentenced to death; Morsi's own trial remained ongoing as of March 24th
This page was last updated on July 10, 2020.

Egypt Trivia

What are Egypt's endangered animals?

Arabian Leopards, Mediterranean Monk Seals, Addaxes, and Nubian Wild Asses are Critically Endangered in Egypt.

Egypt's Endangered Mammals

About the Author

John Moen is a cartographer who along with his wife are the orignal founders of worldatlas.com. He and his wife, Chris Woolwine-Moen, produced thousands of award-winning maps that are used all over the world and content that aids students, teachers, travelers and parents with their geography and map questions. Today, it's one of the most popular educational sites on the web.

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