1. World Map /
  2. Africa/
  3. Chad/
  4. Chad Timeline

Chad History Timeline

Chad's Information

Flag of Chad
Land Area 1,259,200 km2
Water Area 24,800 km2
Total Area 1,284,000km2 (#20)
Population 11,852,462 (#76)
Population Density 9.41/km2
Government Type Presidential Republic
GDP (PPP) $30.59 Billion
GDP Per Capita $2,600
Currency Franc (XAF)
Largest Cities

900 - 1800s

  • (800s) Kanembu people established empire northeast of Lake Chad
  • (1000s) Sayfawa rulers extended south into Kanem; built first capital, Njimi
  • (1300s) Kanem Empire torn apart by internal struggles and external attacks
  • (1396) Bulala invaders forced Sayfawa rulers to abandon Njimi; Kanembu people were moved to Bornu on west of Lake Chad
  • (1400 - 1800) New group, the Kanuri, created by intermarriages of Kanembu and Bornu peoples; founded new capital of Ngazargamu
  • (1571 - 1603) Idris Aluma led the Kanem-Bornu people, brought about many administrative reforms and expanded military prowess
  • (1808) Fulani warriors conquered Ngazargamu
  • (1846) Sayfawa dynasty ended
  • (1883 - 1893) Sudanese explorer, Rabih al-Zubayr conquered kingdoms in present day Chad
  • (1891) The French arrived, conducted military expeditions against Muslim kingdoms
  • (1893) Sayfawa Empire fell
1900s
  • (1900) The Battle of Kousseri between French and Sudanese forces resulted in deaths of both leaders, with France winning control of Chad
  • (1905) Administration of Chad was placed under governor-general in Brazzaville, capital of (then) French Equatorial Africa
  • (1913) Chad became colony within French Equatorial Africa
  • (1934) French Equatorial Africa became unified territory of France
  • (1940) Chad was first French colony to rejoin Allies during World War II
  • (1946) Chad became French overseas territory, had its own parliament and representation in French National Assembly
  • (1947) Chadian Progressive party (PPT) established, led by Gabriel Lisette
  • (1947) Conservative Chadian Democratic Union (UDT) party founded
  • (1957) PPT party won pre-independence elections, territory was led by Lisette
  • (1958) Chad, Gabon, Middle Congo became autonomous republics
  • (1959) Gabriel Lisette lost vote of confidence
  • (1960) Chad became independent from France with Francois Tombalbaye as the first president
  • (1962) President Tombalbaye banned all political parties except PPT
  • (1963) 500 killed in tax revolt in Guera Prefecture, southern Chad
  • (1963) Violent opposition in the Muslim north was triggered due to the banning of the political parties; Frolinat led revolt
  • (1966) Northern revolt developed into guerrilla war
  • (1973) French troops assisted with putting down the northern revolt
  • (1974) Oil was discovered
  • (1976) President Tombalbaye deposed, killed in coup led by Felix Malloum
  • (1976) Development Bank of Central American States established, Chad was one of six founding African members
  • (1977) Libya annexed the Aouzou strip in northern Chad
  • (1979) Felix Malloum forced to leave the country, coalition government established, Goukouni Oueddei, a Muslim, assumed power
  • (1980 - 1982) Goukouni Oueddei served as president
  • (1980) Libya sent troops to support Oueddei in battle against Army of the North, led by former Prime Minister, Hissene Habre
  • (1981) Oueddei requested Libya to withdraw their troops
  • (1982) Hissene Habre seized power, became dictator
  • (1982) Capital city of N'Djamena captured by Habre's troops
  • (1983) Habre's government recognized by Organization of African Unity
  • (1983) Libya continued to assist Oueddei's forces in the north
  • (1987) France and U.S. assisted Chadian government in driving Libya out of the northern region other than the Aouzou strip and part of Tibesti
1900s continued
  • (1990) Guerilla chief, Idriss Deby, seized power, deposed Hissene Habre
  • (1992) Commission established in Chad accused Habre and his regime of 40,000 political killings, 200,000 torture cases
  • (1992) Hissene Habre fled to Senegal with $11 million
  • (1992) Agreement signed to share water from Nubian sandstone aquifer system, located under Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan
  • (1992) Transitional government set up with Idriss Deby as interim president with free elections to be held within a year
  • (1994) Libyan claims on Aouzou rejected by International Court of Appeals; court ruled Chad had sovereignty over the strip
  • (1996) Idriss Deby elected president with 70% of the votes in first multi-party election
  • (Mid-1990s) President Deby restored basic functions of government, entered into agreements with World Bank and IMF for assistance in substantial economic reforms
  • (1997) Locusts (as many as 200 locusts per square yard) spread across southwest Chad
  • (1998) Former Defense Minister, Youssouf Togoimi, led Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad in armed rebellion against government
  • (1998) Troops from Chad sent to Congo to support President Kabila
  • (1998) Parliament passed law for strict auditing of oil income
2000s
  • (2000) Complaint filed in Senegal against former dictator, Hissene Hebre, outlined allegations of political killings, tortures, disappearances
  • (2000) Hissene Habre indicted by Senegalese court
  • (2000) Chad received $25 million bonus from Chevron and Petronas for new pipeline deal
  • (2000) World Bank approved $3.7 billion oil well and pipeline project to link oil fields in southern Chad to Atlantic port in Cameroon
  • (2001) Courts in Senegal said Hissene Habre should not be made to stand trial in Senegal, as they did not have jurisdiction to try him
  • (2001) Trailer-truck with 100 passengers plunged into Chari River off Chagoua Bridge, most people were missing and feared dead
  • (2001) In presidential election, President Deby reelected
  • (2001) Fossils were found in Djurab desert of a human ancestor "Toumai, hope of life" by scientists
  • (2002) Government and Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MDJT) signed peace deal to end three-year civil war
  • (2002) Four months after peace deal was signed, MDJT rebels and government forces clashed in the north, 64 killed
  • (2002) Rebel leader of MDJT, Youssouf Togoimi, died from wounds after vehicle struck a land mine
  • (2003) National Resistance Army (ANR) and government signed peace agreement
  • (2003) Chad began pumping oil to a port in Cameroon
  • (2003) Government and rebels signed ceasefire agreement at talks in Burkina Faso


This page was last updated on July 10, 2020.

About the Author

John Moen is a cartographer who along with his wife are the orignal founders of worldatlas.com. He and his wife, Chris Woolwine-Moen, produced thousands of award-winning maps that are used all over the world and content that aids students, teachers, travelers and parents with their geography and map questions. Today, it's one of the most popular educational sites on the web.

Trending on WorldAtlas

Countries of Africa