Syria occupies an area of around 185,180 sq. km in the Arabian Peninsula.
In general terms, Syria is a flat desert plateau, dissected by mountains with a narrow coastal plain to the west that fronts the Mediterranean Sea.
The coastline of Syria is around 180 km long and features sandy bays, low cliffs, and rocky headlands.
As observed on the map above, the landscape of the west-central and northern regions of Syria are dominated by the Anti-Lebanon and Bishri mountains. The former marks the country's boundary with Lebanon. The highest point, Mt Hermon, stands in the far southwest at 2,814 m. It has been marked with a yellow upright triangle. Several smaller mountains are scattered about Syria.
The rest of the country is covered by the undulating plains of the Syrian Desert where the elevation varies from 300 to 500m.
Significant bodies of water include Lake al-Assad (a man-made reservoir,) created by a dam on the Euphrates River.The Euphrates and its longest tributary, the Khabur, (both rising in the mountains of Turkey) are the major rivers. Dozens of much smaller rivers flow down into the central valleys.
Syria (officially, Syrian Arab Republic) is a unitary republic divided into 14 governorates (sing. muhafazah). In alphabetical order these governorates are: Aleppo, Al-Hasakah, Al-Suwayda, Daraa, Damascus, Deirez-zor, Hama, Homs, Idlib, Latakia, Quneitra, Raqqa, Rifdimashq and Tartus. These governorates are subdivided into 61 districts (sing. mintaqah) which in turn have a number of sub-districts.
With an area of 42,223 sq.km, the Homs Governorate is the largest in the country while Aleppo is the most populous one.
Damascus, one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities, is the capital and the largest city of Syria. It is located in South-western Syria at the foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range.
Syria is a Western Asian country located in Northern and Eastern hemispheres of the Earth. It is bordered by five Asian Nations: Turkey in the north, Lebanon in the west, Iraq in the east, Jordan in the south and Israel in the southwest. Located to the west is the Mediterranean Sea, which stretches along the entire Syrian coastline.
Regional Maps: Map of Asia
|Legal Name||Syrian Arab Republic|
|33 30 N, 36 18 E|
|Independence||17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)|
|Total Area||187,437.00 km2|
|Land Area||185,887.00 km2|
|Water Area||1,550.00 km2|
|Total Border||2,343.0 km|
|Bordering Countries||Iraq 599 km, Israel 79 km, Jordan 362 km, Lebanon 394 km, Turkey 909 km|
|Climate||Mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (june to august) and mild, rainy winters (december to february) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in damascus|
|Coordinates||35 00 N, 38 00 E|
|Mean Elevation||514 m|
|Lowest Elevation||-208 m|
|unnamed location near Lake Tiberias|
|Highest Elevation||2,814 m|
|Mount Hermon (Jabal a-Shayk)|
|Ethnic Groups||Arab ~50%, Alawite ~15%, Kurd ~10%, Levantine ~10%, other ~15% (includes Druze, Ismaili, Imami, Nusairi, Assyrian, Turkoman, Armenian)|
|Languages||Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian, French, English|
|Religions||Muslim 87% (official; includes Sunni 74% and Alawi, Ismaili, and Shia 13%), Christian 10% (includes Orthodox, Uniate, and Nestorian), Druze 3%, Jewish (few remaining in Damascus and Aleppo)|
|Currency||Syrian pounds (SYP)|
|Exports||Crude oil, minerals, petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton fiber, textiles, clothing, meat and live animals, wheat|
This page was last updated on November 9, 2020