The topography of Lebanon can be distinguished into four distinct physiographic regions as observed on the physical map of the country above.
The narrow and discontinuous coastal plain along the Mediterranean Sea features both sandy bays and rocky beaches.
Further inland and rising from the coast is the Lebanon Mountain range that is around 100 miles (160 km) long and has many snow-capped peaks.Deep gorges cut through this mountain region. The highest point of Lebanon is Qurnat as Sawda' which peaks at 10,128 ft. (3,087 m) in the Lebanon Mountains. Its position has been marked on the map by a yellow upright triangle.
Between the Lebanon Mountains to the west and the parallel running Anti-Lebanon Mountains in the east is the Al-Biqāʿ valley. This valley is part of the East African Rift System and features fertile soils.
Over a dozen minor rivers flow from the mountains, with the Litani the most significant, as it irrigates the heart of the fertile Bekaa Valley.
Lebanon (officially, Lebanese Republic) is divided into 8 governorates (mohafazat sing. mohafazah). In alphabetical order, these governorates are: Aakkar, Baalbek-Hermel, Beyrouth (Beirut), Beqaa (Bekaa), Mont-Liban (Mount Lebanon), Nabatiye, Liban-Nord (North Lebanon) and Liban-Sud (South Lebanon). Except the governorates of Beirut and Akkar, the rest 6 governorates are subdivided into districts (Aqdya sing. qadaa) and further smaller subdivisions.
Located on a peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea coast is Beirut – the capital and largest city of Lebanon. It is also Lebanon’s most populous city as well as the country’s important commercial hub. The Port of Beirut is Lebanon’s main seaport and also the busiest and largest port in the Mediterranean region.
Lebanon is a small Middle East nation situated on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea in Western Asia. It is located in Northern and Eastern hemispheres of the Earth. Lebanon borders has land borders with two countries. It is bounded in the northern and eastern parts by Syria; in the southern part by Israel; in the western part by the Mediterranean Sea. The country shares its maritime borders with Cyprus.
Regional Maps: Map of Asia
|Legal Name||Lebanese Republic|
|33 52 N, 35 30 E|
|Independence||22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)|
|Total Area||10,400 km2|
|Land Area||10,230 km2|
|Water Area||170 km2|
|Total Border||484 km|
|Bordering Countries||Israel 81 km, Syria 403 km|
|Climate||Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; the lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows|
|Coordinates||33 50 N, 35 50 E|
|Mean Elevation||1,250 m|
|Lowest Elevation||0 m|
|Highest Elevation||3,088 m|
|Qornet es Saouda|
|Ethnic Groups||Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%|
|Languages||Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian|
|Religions||Muslim 61.1% (30.6% Sunni, 30.5% Shia, smaller percentages of Alawites and Ismailis), Christian 33.7% (Maronite Catholics are the largest Christian group), Druze 5.2%, very small numbers of Jews, Baha'is, Buddhists, and Hindus (2018 est.)|
|Currency||Lebanese pounds (LBP)|
|GDP Per Capita||$7,784.32|
|Exports||Jewelry, base metals, chemicals, consumer goods, fruit and vegetables, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper|
This page was last updated on September 16, 2020