Nigeria is an African country that is located on the western side of the continent. The nation is bordered to the east by Cameroon and Chad while the west is bound by Benin. Niger is to the north of Nigeria while the northeast of Nigeria is bordered by Lake Chad. The coast of the nation in the south lies along the Gulf of Guinea. Nigeria lies within the Tropics, which is an area that has a humid and seasonally damp climate. The nation has several natural resources including the likes of petroleum, columbite, hydropower, iron ore, natural gas, zinc, tin, lead, and many more.
With an area of about 356,669 square miles, the country’s borders have a length of approximately 2,515 miles. The border with Benin runs for about 480 miles, while the one with Niger runs for about 930 miles. The longest border is that with Cameroon, which runs for a massive 10,050 miles, while the shortest border is that with Chad, which runs for a much shorter 54 miles. The coastline has a length of about 530 miles.
Extreme Points of Nigeria
Incidentally, three of the borders of the nation form three of the four extreme points of Nigeria. The northernmost point of Nigeria is located at an unnamed place that is along the boundary with Niger. This point is very close to the northwestern region of the city of Chadawa in Nigeria’s Sokoto State. The border with Cameroon, at a place without a name as well, has the easternmost point of Nigeria. This point is to the east of the small village called Munyego in Borno State. Another unnamed location along the boundary with the Benin Republic makes up the westernmost point of Nigeria. This point is close to the Beninoise city of Jabata in Oyo State. The last point, the southernmost point, is also at an unnamed place that lies to the south of Egeregere in Nigeria’s Bayelsa State.
In Nigeria, there are three types of vegetation: forests, savannahs, and montane land. Forests have considerable amounts of trees while little trees and plenty of flowers and grass mostly populate savannahs. Montane land, which is rarer, is mostly found in mountains that lie close to the border with Cameroon.
The forest cover is located in different places such the mangrove swamps in the southern region of the country while rainforests are located to the north of the mangrove swamps. The savannahs are divided into three types namely the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, the Sudan savannah, and the Sahel savannah.
The largest spans of topography include the valleys of the Benue and the Niger Rivers. To the north of both of the rivers, which converge at Lokoja, there are extensive plains while the southwestern region of the Niger River is made up of a rugged highland. The southeastern portion of the Benue hills is made up of mountains that span all the way to the Cameroonian border. Other more notable topographic structures in Nigeria include the likes of Obudu Plateau, Jos Plateau, Adamawa highlands, and a few others.