Greece is a country found in the southeastern part of Europe at the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The country is found at the crossroad of Asia, Europe, and Africa and is the Mediterranean basin’s country with the longest coastline. Greece is believed to be the cradle of western civilization and is the birthplace of political science, democracy, Western literature, Western philosophy, historiography, major principles in mathematics and science, the Olympic Games, and Western drama. According to CIA world factbook, the nation has an area of 5,0948.8 square miles and a total land border of 428.6 miles long. The country shares a land border with Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey.
The border separating Greece from Albania is about 81.8 miles long according to the CIA world factbook. The relations between the two countries have been cordial, and the border was drawn when Albania gained independence in 1912 following the Florence Protocol by the great powers (Austria, Hungary, and Italy). There were periods when the relations were sour, such as when the Greek military and the Albanian forces fought during the Greco-Italian war. Presently, there are numerous border crossings between Greece and Albania, for instance, the Kapshticë (Devoll)–Krystallopigi (Prespes) border crossing point which is the most important for the two countries.
According to CIA world factbook, Greece and Bulgaria share a border which stretches for about 293 miles long. The two countries share strong political, religious, and cultural ties. The majority of the citizens of Bulgaria and Greece practice Eastern Orthodox religious faith and currently, the two nations have the best diplomatic relations and they are considered friendly nations. Greece has been a strong supporter of the integration of Bulgaria into Euro-Atlantic and admission to the Schengen Area. The two countries have a common political stand on the Balkans and the enlargement plans of the European Union. Bulgaria has also been a supporter of Greece’s stance on the Macedonia naming dispute. The close ties between the two nations were established in 1908, and Bulgaria has an embassy in the city of Athens, while Greece has an embassy in Sofia. Greece is Bulgaria’s major trading partner, and it is a top investor in Bulgaria. The two nations corporate in different fields like energy, judicial, political, and tourism.
According to the CIA world factbook, the border between Greece and Macedonia is about 145 miles long. Macedonia is among the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, and it became independent in 1991. However, the country has a dispute with Greece over the name “Macedonia.” The country joined the UN in 1993, with the interim name of “Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,” which is abbreviated as FYROM and is used by organizations such as NATO, the Council of Europe, and EU. The two countries signed the Prespa agreement on June 17, 2018, which would see the country change name to the Republic of North Macedonia. Despite the dispute over the name, the two countries enjoy close trade relations, and Greece has invested in Macedonia. Greece maintains a liaison office in Skopje and a consular affairs office in Bitola. On the other hand, Macedonia maintains a liaison office in Athens and a consular affairs office in Thessaloniki.
Greece and Turkey share a land border running for 119 miles (CIA World Factbook). Ever since Greece gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832, the relationship between Greece and Turkey has been marked with periods of alternating peace and hostility. The two countries have engaged in four major wars in the past. The major dispute between Greece and Turkey is on the Aegean Sea, which has been running since the 1970s and has led to almost military conflict in 1980s and 1990s. The issue in the Aegean Sea touches on several aspects such as sovereignty and related rights.
Greece International Relations
Greece is the oldest member state of Euro-Atlantic and enjoys the significant geopolitical role as a middle power country because of its proximity to the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Europe. The country maintains close diplomatic ties with other European countries, and it is focusing on improving relations with China, the Caucasus, and the Arab world. Greece plays an important role in the eastern Mediterranean because it is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the EU. The country has the largest economy in the Balkan region, and it is a significant regional investor.