Yugoslavia was a southeastern European country that existed between the years 1918 and 1992. It was initially formed following the First World War and was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in October 1929. The monarchy was abolished in 1945 and the country was renamed the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946.
When Yugoslavia was dissolved in the early 1990s, it broke off into the following countries that we recognize today:
The Yugoslav model was successful and the country underwent a period of peace and economic growth up until 1980 under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito. However, following his death in 1980, the federal government system weakened to the point where it could not sustain the rising economic and political challenges. Kosovo Albanians began demanding that their autonomous province be granted a status of a constituent state leading to the 1981 protest. In 1987, Slobodan Milosevic assumed power in Serbia and acquired de facto control over Kosovo and Montenegro. He was met with opposition from party leaders of Slovenia and Croatia who campaigned for greater democratization of the country.
The breakup of Yugoslavia was brought about by political conflicts in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These unresolved issues led to the Yugoslavia War which mainly affected Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The League of Yugoslavia was dissolved in 1990 along federal lines. In 1991, several republics claimed their independence with only Serbia and Montenegro remaining intact.
Independence and the New States
Yugoslavia was finally split into six countries (seven including Kosovo). Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed independence in 1992 which was immediately followed by the Bosnia War, which lasted until 1995.
Croatia achieved independence on June 25, 1991, with the full implementation of the declaration coming in October 1991. However, the tension in the country escalated into averts war when the country was attacked by Yugoslav People’s Army, reducing Croatia to control only two-thirds of its territory. Croatia was recognized by the EEU members and the UN on January 15, 1992. Unrest ended in 1995.
Kosovo attained its independence from Serbia on February 18, 2008, and has since become a member of international institutions such as the World Bank and the IMF. The Parliament of Montenegro declared the country’s independence on June 3, 2006, after a referendum which was not objected by Serbia.
Macedonia celebrates September 8, 1991, as its independence day with the 2nd of August also celebrated as Day of the Republic. In Serbia, the National Assembly of Serbia declared the country a legal successor of Yugoslavia on June 5, 2006, followed by the declaration of Kosovo’s independence in 2008 which made Serbia an independent state.
"Yugosphere" was a term coined by The Economists in 2009 to describe the present day physical areas that defined Yugoslavia. The similarity of languages and the long association with Yugoslavia have left ties among the people of the new states. The people still interact at an individual, group, and state levels with strong bonds and association between the different new states. The remembrance of the positive attributes during the joint time is often referred to as "Yugonostalgia".
Which Present Day Countries Once Comprised Yugoslavia?
|Rank||Present Day Countries Once Part Of Yugoslavia||Capital|
|1||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Sarajevo|