Gallbladder cancer is a type of cancer where the malignant cells develop in the gallbladder tissues. Nearly 85% of all gallbladder cancer cases are adenocarcinoma, meaning cancer begins in the glandular cells of the gallbladder. The cancer is hard to detect since the gallbladder is located deep inside the body and there are no noticeable signs and symptoms in the initial stages.
Various factors have been identified by medical practitioners that may predispose a person at risk of developing the disease. Age has been identified as a risk factor where older people are at higher risk especially those over 70 years. Lifestyle habits such as smoking and over-indulging in unhealthy diets are also among the risk factors. Conditions of the gallbladder such as Cholecystitis which causes the inflammation of the organ and gallstones are also risk factors for the disease. Genes also play a role, where a family member has suffered from the disease then there is higher chance of the disease manifesting itself down the family line. Females are more likely to develop the disease and some ethnic groups are more likely to develop the disease than others.
Countries With The Highest Incidence Of Gallbladder Cancer In The World
Czech Republic has 9.7 age-standardized rate per 100,000 people in the population. The Czech Republic has made strides in the recent years in the prevention and control of cancer. A substantial number of people face challenges in accessing early diagnostics in the country’s cancer management facilities. The country had 793 deaths due to gallbladder cancer in 2008. Females are more likely to get the disease than their male counterparts. 2012 incidences of gallbladder cancer were, at estimated standardized rates of 7.3 in women and 5.3 men.
Slovakia ranks the second country and has 9.4 as age-standardized rate per 100000 people. Estimates from 2012 showed that women develop the disease at a higher rate of 6.8 than that of their male counterparts at 5.3. Women in Slovakia also have a higher mortality rate from the disease than their male counterparts. The female death rate due to gallbladder cancer in 2012 was estimated to be 5.0 for women and 4.1 for men.
Hungary ranks as the third country in the world and had an age-standardized rate of 9.3 per 100,000 people in the population. Gender rates in 2012 for the disease were at 4.2 for males and 4.5 for females. Females also had a higher mortality rate from the disease in the same year at an estimated rate of 3.7 while that for men was an estimated 3.4.
Gallbladder cancer accounted for 220 deaths in Finland in 2011, where the age-standardized rate for the disease was 8.7 per 100,000 people in the population. The disease is highest among the 40-70 age groups. Gender rates for the disease in Finland stood at an estimated 2.8 for males and 2.9 for females in 2012. The mortality rate for the disease in the same year was an estimated 2.0 for males and 2.5 for females.
Higher Prevalence In The Less Developed Nations
Other top countries with high incidences of gallbladder cancer, per 100,000 age-standardized populations are Armenia (9.3), Slovenia (8.8), Japan (8.5), Denmark (8.5), and Austria (8.2). Latvia, Malta, French Guyana and Republic of Moldova all had a rate of 8.1.
About 65% of gallbladder cancer cases in the world occur in less developed countries, this is because there is an increase in the middle class in these countries and they indulge in risk living habits the predispose them to risk of developing the disease. This situation can be attributed to geographical variations in the prevalence of the disease, where people living in areas such as South America and Asia are more likely to develop the disease. Migration patterns and lifestyle habits of a rising middle-class population in developing countries also contributes to the prevalence of the disease. The most effective treatment for gallbladder cancer is the removal of the organ through a surgical procedure known as a cholecystectomy. Radiation and chemotherapy can enhance the effectiveness of the surgery.