The world population has grown continuously since the end of the Great Famine (1315-1317) and the Black Death (1350). According to recent estimates, the current global population is approximately 7.2 billion. However, rates of population growth vary over time and by location, and therefore some countries are significantly more populated than others. China, India, the United States, Indonesia, Brazil, and Pakistan are among the most populated countries in the world and have populations that exceed 200 million.
Countries with a Population over 200 Million
China is the most populated country in the world, with a total population of about 1,395,190,000 people. The most populated cities in China include Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Guangzhou, and Chengdu. In an attempt to control China's rapid growth of population, the government first implemented a one-child policy in 1979, which was later replaced with a two-child policy. According to recent studies, the fertility rate in China is increasing significantly. It is estimated that by 2050, the total fertility rate in China will reach 1.8 children per woman. China is now one of the most developed countries in the world, and citizens have access to quality healthcare services and improved hygiene and diet, which has led to significant population growth.
India is the second most populous country, after China, with a total population of about 1,339,590,000 people. Several factors have contributed to this massive population growth. For example, the country's birth rate is significantly higher than its death rate, which leads to significant population growth. Future projections by the United Nations (UN) estimate that by 2050 India will be the most populated country in the world. It is estimated that India's population will surpass China because China's one-child (and more recent two-child policy) has slowed its population growth.
The United States (US) has an approximate population of 328,179,000, making it the third most populous country, after China and India. The country is made up of 50 states and the state of California is the most populated. Various factors influence population growth in the US, such as a high life expectancy and a low death rate.
Indonesia is an island nation situated between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and has a total population of 265,015,300, making it the fourth most populated country in the world. Indonesia also has the largest population of any Muslim-majority country. The birth rate in Indonesia is significantly higher than its death rate, which contributes to the country's rapid population growth. In order to control its rapid increase of population, Indonesia has adopted a multi-dimensional family planning program.
Brazil has a total population of about 209,850,000, ranking as the world's fifth most populous country. The country is also the world's fifth largest country in terms of area. However, although Brazil's population continues to grow, its rate of growth has been declining since the 1960s. This is explained by a significant decrease in the birth rate. At the same time, life expectancy in the country has increased, which this means that Brazil's population will have a relatively large elderly population in the coming years.
Pakistan has a total population of about 202,675,000, making it the world's sixth most populous country. The country's population has grown by more than 50% in less than two decades, and now represents approximately 2.5% of the global population. Similar to most highly populated countries, Pakistan's birth rate is significantly higher than its death rate, which causes substantial population growth.
Future Population Projections
The populations of the countries highlighted above continue to grow, even in cases where government policies or programs have been implemented to slow growth rates. Studies suggest that by 2050, India will be the world's most populated country, followed by China, Nigeria, the United States, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.