The National Flag of Russia was officially adopted on August 22, 1991.
The National Flag of Russia features three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red. The blue color stands for the faithfulness and honesty of the people of Russia. The red color symbolizes the courage and the love of the Russian people. The white color stands for the frankness and nobility of the Russian citizens. The flag has a width-to-length ratio of 2:3.
Over Russia's history, several flags have been flown within the Russian nation. One of the oldest banners the Russian army used was the banner of Ivan the terrible, whose rule over the entire country lasted from 1547 to 1584. The banner outlasted his rule as it would later be used by other rulers such as Tsarina Sophia Alekseevna and Peter the Great in different campaigns. Another military banner that was used in Russia's history belonged to Dmitry Pozharsky and was used by the Nizhny Novgorod militia. During the reign of Peter the Great, the flag of Moscow's Tsar was first raised on a ship. The flag at this point was comprised of three colors blue, red, and white. The colors chosen were of great significance as the red symbolized the Russian citizens, the blue symbolized the Russian monarch, and the white represented God. The colors used in the flag were a significant source of inspiration for the Pan-Slavic colors. The tricolor flag was regularly used on Russian ships and in 1883 was officially approved for land use. In 1896, the flag was formally adopted as Russia's national flag and would remain in use until the October Revolution. After the Tsar's government was overthrown, a new Soviet flag was introduced which was closely associated with the communist government. After the Soviet Union collapsed, the Soviet flag was replaced with the tricolor flag that had previously been used in Russia. One of the significant events that led to the flag being changed was an attempted coup by hardliners in the communist party who questioned Mikhail Gorbachev's policies. The modern-day flag differs from the traditional flag primarily in the proportions of the stripes.
The National Coat of Arms of Russia was restored on November 30, 1993, after the constitutional crisis, and it was designed by Yevgeny Ukhnalyov. It is composed of a two-headed eagle placed against a shield of red. On the central red shield is featured a silver horseman in a blue cape, who is seen mounted on a silver horse and slaying a black dragon with the silver spear. Two small crowns are placed on the eagle’s head along with one large crown positioned above them. A ribbon links the three crowns and the crowns stand for the unity and sovereignty of Russia. The orb and scepter are held in the talons of the eagle and symbolize sovereign power and authority.
Gosudarstvennyy Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii ("State Anthem of the Russian Federation") is the national anthem of Russia. The music of the anthem have been composed by Alexandr Vasilievich Alexandrov. The lyrics of the anthem have been penned by Sergey Vladimirovich Mikhalkov. The music of the anthem was officially adopted on December 25, 2000. The lyrics of the anthem was officially adopted on December 30, 2000.
Россия — священная наша держава,
Россия — любимая наша страна.
Могучая воля, великая слава —
Твоё достоянье на все времена!
Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Братских народов союз вековой,
Предками данная мудрость народная!
Славься, страна! Мы гордимся тобой!
От южных морей до полярного края
Раскинулись наши леса и поля.
Одна ты на свете! Одна ты такая —
Хранимая Богом родная земля!
Широкий простор для мечты и для жизни
Грядущие нам открывают года.
Нам силу даёт наша верность Отчизне.
Так было, так есть и так будет всегда!
Russia — our sacred state,
Russia — our beloved country.
A mighty will, great glory —
These are yours for all time!
Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
Age-old union of fraternal peoples,
Popular wisdom given by our forebears!
Be glorious, our country! We are proud of you!
From the southern seas to the polar lands
Spread our forests and fields.
You are unique in the world, one of a kind —
Native land protected by God!
Wide spaces for dreams and for living
Are opened for us by the coming years.
Our loyalty to our Motherland gives us strength.
Thus it was, thus it is, and thus it will always be!
The current official currency of Russia is the Russian ruble (RUB). 1 ruble is made up of 100 kopeks. The Bank of Russia is the issuer of the currency. Ruble banknotes are printed by a Joint Stock Company called Goznak while ruble coins are minted by Saint Petersburg Mint and Moscow Mint, both of which are also part of Goznak.
Currently, coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 rubles are in circulation.
Currently, notes in denominations of 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000 rubles are in circulation.
The use of the ruble in Russia and its territories started in the 13th century. It was used in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union under the name soviet ruble and it was denoted as SUR. In 1704, it was the first currency in the world to adopt a decimal system, when 1 ruble was subdivided into 100 kopeks. The Soviet ruble ceased to be Russia's currency in 1992 after the Soviet Union broke up in 1991. The first Russian ruble replaced the Soviet Ruble in the ratio of 1:1. The first Russian ruble was denoted as RUR. Russia was faced with a financial crisis in 1998, and during this period the Russian ruble was devalued. A new ruble was introduced in the country and the new ISO Code assigned to the currency was RUB. The current rubble replaced the old ruble in the ratio of 1 RUB to 1000 RUR.