Mango is a tropical fruit that grows on extremely large trees that reach over 100 feet in height and 12 feet in diameter. The fruit itself is considered a stone fruit due to its single pit. Mangoes can come in a variety of colors, including orange, red, green, and yellow. This fruit is native to India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan and related to sumac and poison ivy. Its importance to humans dates back to around 2000 BC when it was domesticated in India. After domestication, the mango was introduced to East Asia between 500 and 400 BC. By the 15th century, it had made its way to the Philippines, followed by Africa and Brazil in the 16th century. Akbar, a Mughal emperor, planted over 100,000 mango trees in a place now known as Lakhi Bagh in India. Today, mango trees can be found in a number of tropical climates.
Mango has been cultivated for centuries. Today, it is an important crop in tropical regions throughout South America, Hawaii, Central America, Asia, the Caribbean, and Africa. Mango farmers often practice grafting in order to ensure fruit production. Grafting is also faster than planting a seed. In 2013, the global mango production reached just under 43 million metric tons. The majority of these mangoes are the Tommy Atkins variety, although there are many other types on the market.
Top Mango Producing Countries
The number 1 mango producing country in the world is India. Production here reaches over 18 million tonnes, which is approximately 50% of the global mango supply. The principal mango producing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Orissa, although many other Indian states also cultivate mangoes. In total, India has about 2,309,000 acres dedicated to mango farming.
The second largest mango producer is China with 4.77 million tonnes of mango. These figures include the mangoes produced in Taiwan. Significant commercial production began here during the 1960’s, although mango has been grown in China for centuries. Most of the mango crops can be found in the southern regions, where temperatures are warmer. Major importers of mangoes from China include Russia, Japan, and South Korea.
Thailand is the third largest mango producer in the world, with 3.4 million tonnes produced in 2016. Thailand has about 753,671 acres dedicated to mango production. Thailand processes and exports this fruit, including in the following presentations: fresh, frozen, canned, and dried. The majority of fresh mangoes, however, are sold in domestic markets. Only about 2% of the fresh fruit is exported to South Korea, China, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore. Mango sales total over $50 million.