1. Home
  2. South America
  3. Peru

Peru History Timeline

Map of Peru
Locator Map of Peru

Peru's Information

Flag of Peru
Land Area 1,279,996 km2
Water Area 5,220 km2
Total Area 1,285,216 km2
Population 30,741,062
Population Density 23.92 / km2
Government Type Presidential Republic
GDP (PPP) $410.00 Billion
GDP Per Capita $13,000
Currency Sol (PEN)
Largest Cities
  • Lima (7,737,002)
  • Arequipa (841,130)
  • Callao (813,264)
  • Trujillo (747,450)
  • Chiclayo (577,375)
  • Iquitos (437,620)
  • Huancayo (376,657)
  • Piura (325,466)
  • Chimbote (316,966)
  • Cusco (312,140)
1500s - 1800s
  • (1523-33) Francisco Pizarro defeated Incas
  • (1535) Francisco Pizarro established Lima, made Lima capital of Viceroyalty of Peru
  • (1780) Mestizos, led by Tupac Amaru II, revolted against Spanish rule
  • (1821) General Jose de San Martin captured Lima from Spain; proclaimed Peru independent
  • (1824) Peru defeated Spain, became last colony in Latin America to gain its independence
  • (1836-39) Peru joined Bolivian confederation
  • (1849-74) 100,000 Chinese workers arrived in Peru as menial laborers
  • (1866) Peru won brief war with Spain
  • (1879-83) Chile defeated Peru, Bolivia during the Pacific war, Peru lost province of Tacna
  • (1884) Treaty of Ancon gave Peruvian province of Tarapaca
  • (1924) Victor Raul Haya de la Torre set up nationalist American Revolutionary Popular Alliance (APRA) while exiled in Mexico
  • (1929) Chile returned Tacna to Peru
  • (1941) Brief border war with Ecuador; under 1942 Rio Protocol, Ecuador ceded tdisputed territory to Peru
  • (1945) Civilian government led by center-left APRA assumed power after free elections
  • (1948) Military coup installed General Manuel A. Odria as president
  • (1963) Peru returned to civilian rule; Fernando Belaunde Terry president
  • (1968) General Juan Velasco Alvardo seized power in military coup
  • (1975) Velasco ousted in coup led by General Quechua; language of Inca made official language along with Spanish
  • (1980) Peru returned to civilian rule with Fernando Belaunde as president
  • (1981) Peru fought border war with Ecuador over Cordillera del Condor
  • (1982) Debt crisis; military crackdown on guerrillas, drug traffickers escalated deaths and "disappearances"
  • (1985) APRA candidate Alan Garcia Perez won presidential election; campaign started to remove military, police "old guard"
  • (1987) New liberated movement led by Mario Vargas Llosa blocked plans to nationalize banks as Peru faced bankruptcy
  • (1988) Peru sought help from International Monetary Fund
  • (1990) Alberto Fujimori defeated Mario Vargas Llosa for president; Fujimori instituted severe austerity measures, privatization programs
  • (1992) Fujimori dissolved congress
  • (1993) New constitution adopted, allowed Fujimori to seek re-election
  • (1995) Fujimori re-elected to second term
  • (1996) Tupac Amaru guerrillas seized hostages at Japanese Ambassador's residence
  • (1997) Special Forces freed hostages held at Japanese ambassador's residence; El Nino caused severe drought
  • (1998) Border agreement with Ecuador established


  • (2000) Intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos caught on video, tried to bribe opposition politician; President Fujimori resigned, congress declared him "morally unfit" to govern; head of congress Valentin Paniagua sworn in as interim president
  • (2001) Alejandro Toledo Peru's elected first president of native Indian origin; fireworks explosion in downtown Lima ignited a horrific fire, killed 290 people
  • (2002) Alberto Fujimori accused of treason; former intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos sentenced nine years in prison for corruption
  • (2003) Congress requested Fujimori extradition from Japan, issued new charges of arms trafficking, torture, student disappearances
  • (2004) Vladimiro Montesinos sentenced to 15 years for corruption, embezzlement, conspiracy; inauguration of major gas pipeline connected jungle gas field with Lima
  • (2005) President Toledo found guilty of electoral fraud; government compensated guerrilla war victims; former president Fujimori arrested in Chile; U.S. and Peru reached a free trade agreement
  • (2006) Alan Garcia won presidency
  • (2007) Parliament granted President Garcia emergency powers - allowed him to rule on issues related to drug trafficking and organized crime
  • (2008) President Garcia appointed Yehude Simon, a leftist regional governor from outside the ruling party, new prime minister
  • (2009) Security forces, indigenous people protested against land ownership laws opening up oil and gas resources to foreign companies; Prime Minister Yehude Simon resigned in response to violence; Javier Velasquez Quesquen appointed new prime minister; ties with Chile strained by Chilean military exercise staged close to the disputed borders; Peruvian air force officer accused of spying for the Chilean military

Latest by WorldAtlas