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Scotland

Map of Scotland
Locator Map of Scotland

  • (500 BC) Crannogs (houses built on stilts) began appearing on lochs
  • (200 BC to 200 AD) Defensive towers occupied
  • (80 AD) Romans invadeded Scotland
  • (83) Romans invaded northern Scotland
  • (105) Romans withdrew from Scotland
  • (122) Construction of Hadrian's Wall began
  • (143) Romans built Antonine Wall
  • (163) Romans withdrew south to Hadrian's Wall
200s - 600s
  • (250) Raids took place by Irish in western Scotland
  • (368) Picts, Scots and Saxons attacked London
  • (500) Migration from Ireland; Kingdom of Dalriada established
  • (547) Angles captured British fortress at Bamburgh, founded Bernicia
  • (570) St. Columba founded monastery at Iona
  • (604) Bernicia and Diera united, formed Northumbia Kingdom
  • (638) Edinburgh captured by Angles
  • (685) Northumbria defeated by Picts at Battle of Dunnichen
700s - 1000s
  • (717) Ionan clergy expelled from Pictland
  • (795) First Viking Raid on Iona
  • (839) Vikings defeated Picts
  • (839) Kenneth MacAlpin became king; Scots and Picts united as one nation
  • (858) Kenneth MacAlpin died
  • (870) Dumbarton Rock captured by Vikings
  • (890) Vikings captured Pict fortress Dunnottar
  • (937) Scots and Vikings defeated at Battle of Brunanburh by English
  • (945) Scotland given Cumbria by Danish King Edmund in return for military support
  • (954) Scottish King Indulf captured Edinburgh
  • (1018) King Malcolm II defeated Northumbrians at Battle of Carhma; first modern border formed between Scotland and England
  • (1040) MacBeth crowned king after defeating Duncan I at Battle of Pitgaveny
  • (1054) Malcolm Canmore, King Duncan I's son, took control of southern Scotland
  • (1057) Canmore defeated MacBeth at Battle of Lumphanan
  • (1072) Scotland invaded by Normans; Treaty of Abernethy completed
  • (1079) Another invasion by Normans; Treaty of Abernethy reimposed
1100s - 1200s
  • (1124) David I became king, introduced feudal system of landholding
  • (1138) English defeated Scots at Battle of Standard
  • (1157) Henry II of England persuaded Malcolm II of Scotland to give Cumbria and Northumbia to English
  • (1164) Somerled, King of Hebrides, defeated by Scottish at Battle of Renfrew
  • (1165) William the Lion (William I) became King of Scotland
  • (1174) William I captured by English at Northumbria; Treaty of Falaise adopted - King of Scots subordinate to King of England; Scottish castles to be occupied by English
  • (1237) Treaty of York established southern border of Scotland
  • (1263) Scots defeated Norwegians at Largs
  • (1266) Norway ceded Hebrides to Scotland in Treaty of Perth
  • (1292) Edward I of England named John Balliol to Scottish throne
  • (1295) Auld Alliance signed between Scotland and France (one of world's oldest defense treaties)
  • (1296) English defeated Scots at Battle of Dunbar; England annexed Scotland; Scottish coronation stone "Stone of Destiny" moved to England
  • (1297) William Wallace led Scots at Battle of Stirling Bridge, defeated English
  • (1298) English defeated Wallace and Scots at Battle of Falkirk
1300s
  • (1303) Army of 8,000 Scots defeated English army of 30,000 at Battle of Roslin; Edward I invaded Scotland
  • (1305) William Wallace betrayed, turned over to English and executed
  • (1306) King Robert I ("The Bruce") crowned
  • (1313) Robert the Bruce invaded Isle of Man
  • (1314) Robert the Bruce defeated Edward II's army at Battle of Bannockburn
  • (1315) Robert the Bruce invaded Ireland; his brother declared king
  • (1328) Treaty of Edinburgh signed, recognized Scotland's independence; ended 30 years of wars
1300s continued
  • (1329) Robert the Bruce died; five year old son, David II, became King
  • (1332) Scots defeated by English at Battle of Duppin Moor; Edward Balliol crowned King of Scots; Balliol fled the country after attack at Annan
  • (1333) Edward III invaded Scotland; defeated Scots
  • (1338) English gave up siege of Dunbar Castle
  • (1349) Black Death killed over 200,000 in Scotland
  • (1371) Robert II became first Scottish Stewart King
1400s
  • (1402) Scots defeated by English at Battle of Homildon Hill
  • (1406) Scottish King James I captured by English
  • (1421) French and Scottish troops defeated English at Anjou, France
  • (1423) Treaty of London released James I after 18 years of captivity
  • (1437) King James I assassinated in Perth; James II (aged 6) crowned King
  • (1457) King James II banned "futeball"
  • (1460) James II killed at battle of Roxburgh Castle by exploding cannon
  • (1472) Shetland and Okney became part of Scotland
  • (1482) English invaded southern Scotland; took Berwick-upon-Tweed and Berwick Castle
  • (1488) King James III killed at Battle of Sauchieburn
  • (1496) James IV raided Northumberland
1500s
  • (1503) King James IV married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England
  • (1512) Scottish became French citizens, French became Scottish citizens in treaty with France
  • (1513) King James IV, thousands of Scots killed at Flodden; King James V (aged one) crowned
  • (1522) England declared war on Scotland and France
  • (1528) Patrick Hamilton, Protestant martyr, burned at stake in St. Andrews
  • (1542) Mary Queen of Scots, born; King James V died
  • (1543) Mary Queen of Scots crowned (nine months old)
  • (1544) Battle of the Shirts between two clans killed nearly a thousand
  • (1547) English defeated Scots at Battle of Pinkie; destroyed much of Dundee
  • (1548) English built major fortification at Haddington; French rescued Mary Queen of Scots (1558) Mary Queen of Scots married Francois, Dauphin of France
  • (1559) King of France died; Mary Queen of Scot's husband became King of France
  • (1560) Treaty of Edinburgh withdrew French and English forces from Scotland; Scottish Parliament legislated Protestant reformation
  • (1561) Mary Queen of Scots left France, returned to Scotland
  • (1565) Mary Queen of Scots married Lord Darnley
  • (1566) King James VI born
  • (1567) Lord Darnley assassinated, Mary Queen of Scots abdicated throne; James VI crowned (one year old)
  • (1568) Mary fled to England
  • (1582) King James VI taken prisoner at Ruthven Castle
  • (1583) King James VI escaped
  • (1584) Parliament declared James VI head of church and state
  • (1586) Mary Queen of Scots, arrested, tried for treason in plot to kill Queen Elizabeth of England
  • (1587) Mary Queen of Scots beheaded


1600s
  • (1603) Queen Elizabeth I of England died; James VI of Scotland now also King James I of England
  • (1606) England, Wales, Scotland adopted Union flag
  • (1625) James VII died; son Charles I became king
  • (1637) Charles I imposed use of new prayer book; rioting took place
  • (1638) Covenanters rebelled against Charles I
  • (1639) Wars of Covenant began; English agreed to truce - "Pacification of Berwick"
  • (1640) Scots marched on Newcastle; truce signed at Ripon; English Parliament sat to raise funds to settle with Scots ("Long Parliament")
  • (1643) Covenanters agreed to aid English parliamentarians against King
  • (1644) Covenanters defeated at Battles of Tippermuir, Fyvie and Inverlochy; city of Aberdeen captured, sacked
  • (1645) Covenanters defeated at Battles of Auldearn, Alford and Kilsyth won battle at Philiphaugh; Oliver Cromwell led New Model Army to victory at Naseby; English captured Glasgow, Edinburgh
  • (1646) Charles I surrendered to Covenanters; imprisoned
  • (1647) Charles I released
  • (1648) Second Civil War began; Oliver Cromwell defeated Scots at Preston
  • (1649) King Charles I executed; Charles II named King in Scotland
  • (1650) Scots defeated by Cromwell at Dunbar; Edinburgh castle surrendered to Cromwell
  • (1652) Great Fire of Glasgow destroyed third of city
  • (1660) Charles II proclaimed King of England, Scotland and Ireland; monarchy restored; Scotland later declared separate kingdom
  • (1666) King's army defeated Covenanters at Battle of Rullion Green
  • (1685) King Charles II died; James VII crowned king
  • (1688) Rioting in Edinburgh spread across Scotland; King James VI deposed, fled
  • (1689) William III and Mary II crowned joint king and queen of England, Scotland and Ireland
  • (1692) Glencoe Massacre - 38 members of Macdonald clan killed
  • (1695) Bank of Scotland founded
1700s
  • (1707) Act of Union passed; England, Wales and Scotland united to form Great Britain; last meeting held of Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh; first meeting of Parliament in Great Britain
  • (1715) First Jacobite rebellion
  • (1725) Bloody riots in Glasgow protested new taxes on Scottish malt
  • (1726) First railway opened between Edinburgh and Dalkeith
  • (1730) Emigration to American colonies began
  • (1745) Second Jacobite rebellion
  • (1746) Second Jacobite rebellion ended at Battle of Culloden
  • (1787) Glasgow weavers rioted after wages cut, six killed; first lighthouse in Scotland opened
  • (1790) Forth and Clyde Canal opened
  • (1799) Income tax introduced
1800s
  • (1812) First commercial steamboat service from Glasgow to Greenock
  • (1814 - 1820) Sutherland Clearances occurred (tenant evictions)
  • (1820) Radical Rising occurred, ringleaders executed
  • (1822) Caledonian Canal between Inverness and Fort William opened
  • (1824) Edinburgh's Great Fire lasted three days, destroyed $400,000 in property, 10 killed, hundreds left homeless
  • (1831) Passenger railway service began between Glasgow and Garnkirk; major outbreak of cholera in Scotland
  • (1832) "The Bad Day", 31 boats sank, 105 died
  • (1837) King William IV died; Queen Victoria crowned
  • (1842) Railway between Glasgow and Edinburgh opened
  • (1843) Free Church of Scotland established
  • (1846) Caledonian Canal between Inverness and Fort William opened; 10-year Highland potato famine began; Corn Law repealed
  • (1860) First open golf championship held at Prestwick
  • (1867) First football club formed
  • (1868) Reform Act passed, all male householders eligible to vote
  • (1872) First Scotland v. England football match held
  • (1877) Explosion at Blantyre Colliery Mine killed 207
  • (1881) Eyemouth Fishing Disaster, 189 fishermen in 20 boats killed in storm
  • (1882) Battle of the Braes fought over land rights disputes
  • (1883) Steamer "Daphne" sunk on river Clyde, 124 drowned
  • (1888) Scottish Labour Party formed
1900s
  • (1901) Queen Victoria died
  • (1904 - 1913) Over 600,000 Scots emigrated
  • (1909) Fans rioted at Scottish Cup Final
  • (1915) Naval bases established in Orkney and Invergordon; rail crash killed 227, injured 246; Navy ship HMS Natal exploded in Cromarty Firth, 405 died
  • (1917) Women over 30 received right to vote
  • (1919) Troop ship Iolaire sunk in Stornoway, killed 200 returning from WWI; riots occurred in Glasgow against rent levels; German fleet captured in Orkney; Bloody Friday riot in Glasgow, 20,000 strikers gathered
  • (1921 - 1931) More than 400,000 Scots emigrated
  • (1923) 40 miners drowned in pit disaster at Redding
  • (1928) National Party for Scotland formed; women over 21 received right to vote; discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming announced
  • (1930) Unemployment reached 25%
  • (1931) 12,000 Navy sailors struck over cuts in pay
  • (1934) Scottish National Party founded; Queen Mary launched for maiden voyage
  • (1936) King Edward VIII abdicated; George VI became King
  • (1941) Shipyards at Clydeside bombed by Luftwaffe, 1,000 killed
  • (1942) 10,000 U. S. troops arrived
  • (1945) World War II ended
  • (1950) Scottish Nationalists stole "Stone of Destiny" from Westminster Abbey
  • (1952) Elizabeth II became queen
  • (1959) First nuclear power station opened; Iceland fired live rounds at fishing trawlers during "Cod War"
  • (1963) Last hanging in Scotland took place
  • (1968) Winds of over 100 mph struck Glasgow, 250,000 homes damaged, 1,700 homeless, 20 killed
  • (1971) Stadium collapse in Glasgow killed 66 football fans; decimal currency introduced
  • (1972) United Kingdom joined European Union
  • (1988) Bomb on Pan Am flight 757 exploded, crashed at Lockerbie, killed 243 passengers, 16 crew, 11 residents
  • (1993) Tanker ran aground in Shetland Islands, spilled 26 million gallons light crude oil
  • (1995) Bridge to Isle of Skye opened; movie "Braveheart" released
  • (1996) Gunman murdered 16 school children and teacher in Dunblane; Stone of Destiny returned, installed in Edinburgh Castle; cloned lamb (named Dolly), born in Edinburgh
  • (1997) Voters approved referendum for separate Scottish Parliament after 290 years of union with England
  • (1999) Election for new Scottish Parliament occurred; officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II
2000s
  • (2003) Dolly, the cloned sheep, died
  • (2004) Queen Elizabeth II opened new Scottish Parliament Building; explosion in plastics factory in Glasgow killed 7, injured 44
  • (2005) Police scuffled with protestors in Edinburgh during G8 summit
  • (2006) Smoking ban in all public places took effect
  • (2007) Railway signalworkers struck, caused severe curtailment of services; attempted terrorist attack on Glasgow Airport, two arrested; Lockerbie bomber allowed appeal
  • (2008) Scottish National Party overturned Labour majority in election
  • (2009) Lockerbie bomber released from prison on compassionate grounds, returned to Libya; flooding caused severe damages
  • (2010) Heaviest snow in 30 years caused school closures, transportation problems; ash cloud from Eyjafjallaj√∂kull volcano in Iceland caused airport closures
  • (2011) Prescription charges abolished in Scotland
  • (2014) Sept 18th: Referendum on Scottish Independence held. Pro UK side wins with 55% of vote.

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