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Scotland History Timeline

BC - 100s
  • (500 BC) Crannogs (houses built on stilts) began appearing on lochs
  • (200 BC to 200 AD) Defensive towers occupied
  • (80 AD) Romans invadeded Scotland
  • (83) Romans invaded northern Scotland
  • (105) Romans withdrew from Scotland
  • (122) Construction of Hadrian's Wall began
  • (143) Romans built Antonine Wall
  • (163) Romans withdrew south to Hadrian's Wall
200s - 600s
  • (250) Raids took place by Irish in western Scotland
  • (368) Picts, Scots and Saxons attacked London
  • (500) Migration from Ireland; Kingdom of Dalriada established
  • (547) Angles captured British fortress at Bamburgh, founded Bernicia
  • (570) St. Columba founded monastery at Iona
  • (604) Bernicia and Diera united, formed Northumbia Kingdom
  • (638) Edinburgh captured by Angles
  • (685) Northumbria defeated by Picts at Battle of Dunnichen
700s - 1000s
  • (717) Ionan clergy expelled from Pictland
  • (795) First Viking Raid on Iona
  • (839) Vikings defeated Picts
  • (839) Kenneth MacAlpin became king; Scots and Picts united as one nation
  • (858) Kenneth MacAlpin died
  • (870) Dumbarton Rock captured by Vikings
  • (890) Vikings captured Pict fortress Dunnottar
  • (937) Scots and Vikings defeated at Battle of Brunanburh by English
  • (945) Scotland given Cumbria by Danish King Edmund in return for military support
  • (954) Scottish King Indulf captured Edinburgh
  • (1018) King Malcolm II defeated Northumbrians at Battle of Carhma; first modern border formed between Scotland and England
  • (1040) MacBeth crowned king after defeating Duncan I at Battle of Pitgaveny
  • (1054) Malcolm Canmore, King Duncan I's son, took control of southern Scotland
  • (1057) Canmore defeated MacBeth at Battle of Lumphanan
  • (1072) Scotland invaded by Normans; Treaty of Abernethy completed
  • (1079) Another invasion by Normans; Treaty of Abernethy reimposed
1100s - 1200s
  • (1124) David I became king, introduced feudal system of landholding
  • (1138) English defeated Scots at Battle of Standard
  • (1157) Henry II of England persuaded Malcolm II of Scotland to give Cumbria and Northumbia to English
  • (1164) Somerled, King of Hebrides, defeated by Scottish at Battle of Renfrew
  • (1165) William the Lion (William I) became King of Scotland
  • (1174) William I captured by English at Northumbria; Treaty of Falaise adopted - King of Scots subordinate to King of England; Scottish castles to be occupied by English
  • (1237) Treaty of York established southern border of Scotland
  • (1263) Scots defeated Norwegians at Largs
  • (1266) Norway ceded Hebrides to Scotland in Treaty of Perth
  • (1292) Edward I of England named John Balliol to Scottish throne
  • (1295) Auld Alliance signed between Scotland and France (one of world's oldest defense treaties)
  • (1296) English defeated Scots at Battle of Dunbar; England annexed Scotland; Scottish coronation stone "Stone of Destiny" moved to England
  • (1297) William Wallace led Scots at Battle of Stirling Bridge, defeated English
  • (1298) English defeated Wallace and Scots at Battle of Falkirk
  • (1303) Army of 8,000 Scots defeated English army of 30,000 at Battle of Roslin; Edward I invaded Scotland
  • (1305) William Wallace betrayed, turned over to English and executed
  • (1306) King Robert I ("The Bruce") crowned
  • (1313) Robert the Bruce invaded Isle of Man
  • (1314) Robert the Bruce defeated Edward II's army at Battle of Bannockburn
  • (1315) Robert the Bruce invaded Ireland; his brother declared king
  • (1328) Treaty of Edinburgh signed, recognized Scotland's independence; ended 30 years of wars
1300s continued
  • (1329) Robert the Bruce died; five year old son, David II, became King
  • (1332) Scots defeated by English at Battle of Duppin Moor; Edward Balliol crowned King of Scots; Balliol fled the country after attack at Annan
  • (1333) Edward III invaded Scotland; defeated Scots
  • (1338) English gave up siege of Dunbar Castle
  • (1349) Black Death killed over 200,000 in Scotland
  • (1371) Robert II became first Scottish Stewart King
  • (1402) Scots defeated by English at Battle of Homildon Hill
  • (1406) Scottish King James I captured by English
  • (1421) French and Scottish troops defeated English at Anjou, France
  • (1423) Treaty of London released James I after 18 years of captivity
  • (1437) King James I assassinated in Perth; James II (aged 6) crowned King
  • (1457) King James II banned "futeball"
  • (1460) James II killed at battle of Roxburgh Castle by exploding cannon
  • (1472) Shetland and Okney became part of Scotland
  • (1482) English invaded southern Scotland; took Berwick-upon-Tweed and Berwick Castle
  • (1488) King James III killed at Battle of Sauchieburn
  • (1496) James IV raided Northumberland
  • (1503) King James IV married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England
  • (1512) Scottish became French citizens, French became Scottish citizens in treaty with France
  • (1513) King James IV, thousands of Scots killed at Flodden; King James V (aged one) crowned
  • (1522) England declared war on Scotland and France
  • (1528) Patrick Hamilton, Protestant martyr, burned at stake in St. Andrews
  • (1542) Mary Queen of Scots, born; King James V died
  • (1543) Mary Queen of Scots crowned (nine months old)
  • (1544) Battle of the Shirts between two clans killed nearly a thousand
  • (1547) English defeated Scots at Battle of Pinkie; destroyed much of Dundee
  • (1548) English built major fortification at Haddington; French rescued Mary Queen of Scots (1558) Mary Queen of Scots married Francois, Dauphin of France
  • (1559) King of France died; Mary Queen of Scot's husband became King of France
  • (1560) Treaty of Edinburgh withdrew French and English forces from Scotland; Scottish Parliament legislated Protestant reformation
  • (1561) Mary Queen of Scots left France, returned to Scotland
  • (1565) Mary Queen of Scots married Lord Darnley
  • (1566) King James VI born
  • (1567) Lord Darnley assassinated, Mary Queen of Scots abdicated throne; James VI crowned (one year old)
  • (1568) Mary fled to England
  • (1582) King James VI taken prisoner at Ruthven Castle
  • (1583) King James VI escaped
  • (1584) Parliament declared James VI head of church and state
  • (1586) Mary Queen of Scots, arrested, tried for treason in plot to kill Queen Elizabeth of England
  • (1587) Mary Queen of Scots beheaded

Countries of Europe

This page was last updated on April 7, 2017.