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Map of England
Locator Map of England


  • (5000 - 2000 BC) Stone Age settlers arrived by crossing English Channel, farming introduced
  • (2200 BC) Bleaker People constructed ring of stones at Stonehenge
  • (600 - 50 BC) Celtic peoples established their culture throughout the British Isles; Druids populated Wales
  • (55 BC) Julius Caesar attempted invasion of Britain, forced to withdraw
  • (54 BC) Julius Caesar attempted second invasion; captured St. Albans

0 - 300s

  • (43 AD) Roman Emperor Claudius and 40,000 troops invaded, Britannia became a Roman province
  • (61 AD) Queen Boadicea organized rebellion against Romans, was defeated
  • (120 AD) Emperor Hadrian ordered wall to be built to mark Roman territory of Britain in north
  • (211 AD) Britain divided into two parts - Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior
  • (254 AD) St. Alban beheaded, became first Britain Christian martyr
  • (290 AD) Carausius rebelled against Roman Empire, took control of Britain and North Gaul
  • (296 AD) Emperor Caesar Constantius Chlorus invaded Britain, recovered it for the Roman Empire
  • (306) Constantine declared Emperor of Rome
  • (360 - 369) Saxons from Northern Germany attacked Roman-occupied Britain; Scot invaders attacked northern Britain; Romans retained control

400s - 600s

  • (410) Roman troops withdrew from Britannia; Roman occupation officially over
  • (440 - 450) Assorted tribes including the Picts, Saxons, Angles and Jutes invaded unprotected Britain
  • (477) Saxon chief, Ella, captured fortress at Anderida; proclaimed himself king of Sussex
  • (525) AD (date) system introduced; Saxons attacked between London and St. Albans; formed Kingdom of Essex
  • (556) Saxons set up seven kingdoms in Britain
  • (597) Saint Augustine sent to Britain to convert English to Christianity
  • (613) Anglo-Saxons conquered all of Britain; land divided into 30 kingdoms
  • (617) Edwin, King of Northumbria, conquered England
  • (617 - 685) Northumbrian kingdom reigned supreme
  • (620) Ireland invaded by Norsemen
  • (663) Plague outbreak across British Isles
  • (668) English Church established

700s - 900s

  • (730 - 821) Mercia kingdom reigned
  • (741) York burned
  • (779) Offa's Dyke (huge earthworks) completed from River Dee to River Wye
  • (793) First Viking raid on Britain at Lindisfarne
  • (802 - 839) Kingdom of Wessex gained control of most of England
  • (836) Vikings and West Welsh defeated in battle at Hengists Down near Plymouth
  • (866) Vikings, the "Great Army", invaded England
  • (867) Northumbria captured by Vikings
  • (870) Vikings sacked York; captured Nottingham
  • (836) Northmen and West Welsh defeated in battle at Hengists Down near Plymouth
  • (872) Vikings defeated Wessex army at Wilton; conquered Mercia
  • (897) King Alfred built first English fleet
  • (926) Eastern England recaptured by Saxons
  • (955) Northumbrian Danes defeated
  • (957) After revolt, Edgar named King
  • (980) Vikings again invaded England
  • (994) Danes and Norwegians attacked London


  • (1002) St. Brice's Day Massacre - King Ethelred ordered all Danes in England be killed
  • (1012) Danes captured Canterbury
  • (1013) Danes captured all of England, King of Danes, Sweyn, made King of England
  • (1016) Danish King Canute became King of England
  • (1035) King Canute died; England divided between three sons, Sweyn - Norway, Hardicanute - Denmark and South England, Harold Harefoot - North England
  • (1042) Edward the Confessor became King
  • (1066) Battle of Hastings occurred; William I crowned King of England
  • (1086) Domesday Book (survey of England) finished
  • (1087) King William I died; son, William II King
  • (1096) The Crusades began (lasted 150 years)
  • (1100) King William II killed; brother Henry I became King
  • (1106) King Henry I conquered Normandy
  • (1154) Henry II crowned King, first in Plantagenet line
  • (1170) Thomas Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury) murdered after quarrel with Henry II
  • (1189) King Henry II ousted; Richard the Lionheart (Richard I) crowned King
  • (1199) King Richard I died in battle; John new King
  • (1204) Philip II of France seized Normandy
  • (1215) Magna Carta (the Great Charter) completed
  • (1224) France declared war on England
  • (1259) Treaty of Paris signed; war with France ended
  • (1272) Henry III died; Edward I crowned King
  • (1282 - 1283) Edward I conquered Wales
  • (1284) Wales annexed to England
  • (1290) King Edward I expelled Jews from England
  • (1296) Edward I invaded Scotland; Scotland became dependency of England
  • (1297) William Wallace of Scotland, defeated English at Stirling Bridge
  • (1298) Edward I invaded Scotland; defeated Scots
  • (1307) King Edward I died; Edward II succeeded to throne; withdrew from Scotland
  • (1314) English defeated at Battle at Bannockburn
  • (1318) Scottish forces invaded North England
  • (1320) Declaration of Arbroath signed by earls and barons of Scotland, rejected English rule
  • (1327) Edward II abdicated throne; Edward III King
  • (1328) Edward III made peace with Scotland; treaty of Edinburgh signed

1300s continued

  • (1346) English claimed first land victory in northern France of Hundred Years' War
  • (1348) Black Death Plague ravished England; over 50% of population died
  • (1377) King Edward III died; Richard II (age 10) crowned King; Poll tax introduced
  • (1381) Peasant's Revolt against poll tax occurred
  • (1399) King Richard II forced to resign; Henry IV crowned King
  • (1404) Welsh hero, Owain Glyndwr, gained control of Wales; declared himself Prince of Wales
  • (1409) Welsh surrendered to England
  • (1413) King Henry IV died; Henry V new king
  • (1415) English defeated French at Battle of Agincourt
  • (1419) Henry V took control of Normandy, France
  • (1422) Henry V died; Son Henry VI (aged nine months) succeeded; council established to rule England
  • (1453) Final battle of Hundred Years' War occurred at Chatillon; War ended; England ousted from France
  • (1455) War of the Roses began between parties of Plantagenets and Lancastrians
  • (1471) Edward IV reclaimed crown from King Henry VI; Henry VI died
  • (1483) King Edward IV died; dispute occurred about rightful king; Richard III crowned King
  • (1485) Henry Tudor, descendent of Edward III, fought to take over English throne; King Richard III died during battle, Henry Tudor crowned King Henry VII; War of the Roses ended at Battle of Bosworth
  • (1492) Kings Henry VII of England and Charles VII of France negotiated Treaty of Etaples; Christopher Columbus discovered Bahamas
  • (1509) King Henry VII died; King Henry VIII crowned
  • (1513) English defeated Scots and French invasion at Battle of Flodden Field
  • (1533) King Henry VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon; married Anne Boleyn; Pope excommunicated Henry VIII from church
  • (1534) King Henry VIII formed Church of England
  • (1536) Anne Boleyn executed; Henry VIII married Jane Seymour
  • (1542) Scottish forces attacked England at Battle of Solway; King James V of Scotland died; daughter Mary crowned Queen of Scots
  • (1547) King Henry VIII died; Edward VI (age nine) became King
  • (1549) Book of common prayer introduced; First Act of Uniformity passed, banning Roman Catholic mass
  • (1553) King Edward VI died; Lady Jane Grey declared Queen of England for nine days; Mary I crowned Queen
  • (1558) French retook Calais; Queen Mary I died; Elizabeth I crowned Queen
  • (1559) Mary, Queen of Scots, claimed her royal right to the English throne
  • (1565) Walter Raleigh brought tobacco to England
  • (1567) Mary, Queen of Scots, abdicated, son James declared King
  • (1587) Queen Elizabeth I ordered execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, for treason
  • (1588) Spanish Armada sent to attack England; the English overwhelmingly defeated the Spanish fleet
  • (1593) William Shakespeare's first published work
  • (1600) East India Company established
  • (1603) Queen Elizabeth I died; James VI of Scotland became James I of England, first Stuart king
  • (1604) Kings James I of England and Philip III of Spain signed Treaty of London, war ended
  • (1605) Plan to blow up Parliament, the Gunpowder Plot, failed
  • (1614) Parliament called Addled Parliament for not passing one act during sitting; James I dissolved Parliament
  • (1620) Mayflower with Pilgrims arrived in America
  • (1621) Thirty Years War began (Protestants against Catholics)
  • (1625) King James I died; son Charles I crowned
  • (1640) Long Parliament sat (until 1660)
  • (1642) English Civil War began
  • (1645) Civil War ended, Charles I defeated
  • (1648) Second Civil War occurred
  • (1649) King Charles I tried for levying war; found guilty and was executed; son Charles II declared himself King
  • (1653 - 1658) Lord Cromwell ruled as Lord Protector
  • (1654) England declared war on Spain
  • (1660) Monarchy restored with King Charles II
  • (1665) Great Plague struck London; over 75,000 died
  • (1666) Great Fire of London destroyed more than 12,000 houses, 80 churches
  • (1685) King Charles II died; brother James, Duke of York, crowned King James II
  • (1688 - 1689) Glorious Revolution took place, King James II deposed by Parliament
  • (1689) William III and Mary II jointly crowned King and Queen of England
  • (1690) Battle of the Boyce occurred, King William III defeated armies of James II
  • (1691) King William III took control of Ireland
  • (1694) Queen Mary II died; Bank of England established
  • (1702) King William III died; Anne, daughter of James II, crowned Queen
  • (1707) Act of Union passed - united England and Scotland as Great Britain
  • (1714) Queen Anne died; George Ludwig, great grandson of James I became King George I, the first German-speaking monarch
  • (1720) The South Sea Bubble financial crisis struck
  • (1721) Whig politician, Robert Walpole, became first Prime Minister of Great Britain
  • (1727) King George I died; son, George II crowned new king
  • (1745) French defeated Great Britain and Austria at Battle of Fontenoy; Bonnie Prince Charlie, claimant to throne, defeated by King George II supporters
  • (1752) Gregorian calendar (also known as New Style) adopted by Britain and all British colonies
  • (1756) Seven Years' War began
  • (1760) King George II died; George III new king
  • (1763) Treaty of Paris ended Seven Years' War
  • (1770) British troops sent to American colonies; Boston Massacre occurred; British troops quickly removed from Boston
  • (1773) Colonists in America dumped chests of tea into sea protesting taxes (Boston Tea Party)
  • (1775) American Revolution began
  • (1776) American Declaration of Independence signed by thirteen colonies declaring break from Britain
  • (1781) American Revolution ended; America won its independence
  • (1801) Act of Union placed Ireland under British Parliament control
  • (1805) British defeated Napoleon's French fleet at Battle of Trafalgar
  • (1811) King George III deemed unfit to rule; son George, Prince of Wales, appointed Prince Regent
  • (1812 - 1815) War of 1812
  • (1811 - 1817) Luddite Movement occurred - rioting against unemployment due to Industrial Revolution; potato famine ravished Ireland
  • (1819) Factory Act banned child workers under nine
  • (1820) King George III died; George IV became king
  • (1829) Roman Catholic Relief Act passed, gave political rights to Catholics for loyalty to Protestant monarchy
  • (1830) King George IV died; succeeded by brother, Duke of Clarence, as King William IV
  • (1832) Great Reform Act passed, male property owners allowed to vote; cholera struck Britain, more than 20,000 died
  • (1834) Charles Babbage invented mechanical calculating machine - prototype for modern computer
  • (1837) King William IV died; his niece crowned Queen Victoria of Britain
  • (1845) Potato crops across Europe ruined
  • (1851) Great Exhibition took place - more than six million visited
  • (1854 - 1856) Britain victorious in Crimean War
  • (1863) First underground railway in London opened

1800s continued

  • (1867) Second Reform Act passed - male household heads allowed to vote
  • (1869) Suez Canal opened; women rate-payers given right to vote in local elections
  • (1870) Education Act passed, school mandatory for children up to 11 years
  • (1872) Ballot Act passed - voting now secret
  • (1875) Captain Michael Webb first person to swim across English Channel
  • (1877) Queen Victoria declared Empress of India
  • (1878) Pleasure boat, Princess Alice, sank in Thames River, more than 600 died
  • (1892) First Labour MP elected
  • (1896) Britain won three gold medals at first modern Olympic Games in Athens
  • (1899 - 1902) Boer War took place; Britain defeated South African Dutch settlers
  • (1901) Queen Victoria died; son Edward VII new king
  • (1903) Suffagrette movement founded
  • (1908) Introduction of pensions
  • (1910) Edward VII died, son George crowned King George V
  • (1912) Titanic left Southampton, sank in North Atlantic, 1,513 people died
  • (1914) World War I began
  • (1918) World War I ended, one million Brits dead
  • (1920) League of Nations launched
  • (1921) Ireland granted independence by Ango-Irish Treaty; six counties retained as part of United Kingdom
  • (1922) United Kingdom became known as United Kingdom of Great Britain and North Ireland; British Broadcasting Company aired first radio service
  • (1924) John Logie Baird, Scottish engineer, invented television
  • (1926) Two million workers went on strike, the "General Strike" lasted for nine days
  • (1928) Women aged 21 received right to vote; Amelia Earhart landed in South Wales - first female to fly solo across Atlantic; Doctor Alexander Fleming of London discovered penicillin
  • (1929) New York Stock Exchange crashed, economic slump hit Britain
  • (1936) King George V died; son Edward VIII crowned king, abdicated the throne to marry Mrs. Simpson (second shortest reign in English history); brother George (George V) became king
  • (1939) World War II began
  • (1940) Ration books introduced for food, clothing, petrol; Winston Churchill leader of British forces
  • (1945) World War II ended
  • (1948) National Health Service began to offer free medical care (from the cradle to the grave)
  • (1951) Festival of Britain took place; Winston Churchill re-elected Prime Minister
  • (1952) King George VI died; Britain tested nuclear bomb
  • (1953) Elizabeth II crowned Queen of England; scientists at Cambridge University discovered structure of DNA
  • (1955) Churchill resigned as Prime Minister
  • (1958) Great Train Robbery occurred - Royal Mail train robbed; Beatles released hit songs
  • (1966) England won Football World Cup; Aberfan, Wales swamped by mining waste, 116 children died and 28 adults
  • (1969) Maiden flight of Concorde took place; Queen Elizabeth II's son, Charles, named Prince of Wales; death penalty abolished
  • (1971) Decimal currency adopted; rioting in Ireland left 20 people dead
  • (1973) Britain joined Common Market; bombs in London killed one and injured 250
  • (1976) Britain had hottest, driest summer in 250 years; Concorde made first commercial flight

1900s continued

  • (1978) Test tube baby, Louise Brown, born in Lancashire
  • (1979) "Iron Lady" Margaret Thatcher became first female Prime Minister
  • (1980) Iranian terrorists sacked Iranian Embassy in London; John Lennon killed in New York City
  • (1981) Prince Charles married Lady Diana Spencer; ten prisoners died during hunger strike of IRA at Maze Prison in Ireland; rioting in South London
  • (1982) British troops drove Argentine forces out of Falkland Islands; IRA continued attacks on London at Regents Park and Knightsbridge, nine people killed
  • (1985) Fire at Bradford City Football Ground killed 40 and injured 150; rioting at European Cup final killed 39 people; Live Aid concert took place in London; race riots in Bruston occurred
  • (1987) Margaret Thatcher re-elected; hurricane hit Britain, caused 17 deaths; IRA bomb in County Fermanagh killed 11 and injured more than 60; Stock markets crashed around world - named Black Monday; Kings Cross underground station fire killed 30
  • (1989) Crowd crush at FA match in Sheffield killed nearly 100
  • (1990) Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher resigned
  • (1994) Channel Tunnel opened rail link between Britain and rest of Europe
  • (1997) Labour Party won landslide victory, Tony Blair became Prime Minister; Princess Diana killed in auto accident in Paris; British returned Hong Kong to China at end of its 99 year lease
  • (1999) Minimum wage introduced; bombings occurred in London; Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly formed
  • (2003) Britain joined United States-led coalition in Iraq war; 750,000 people in London staged anti-war protest
  • (2005) London's public transport system struck by four bomb attacks; 54 people killed, more than 700 injured; Tony Blair elected to third term; Irish Republican Army gave up weapons arsenal
  • (2006) Armed robbery of security company resulted in kidnapping of manager, theft of 25 million pounds ($43.5 million)
  • (2007) Severe winter storm killed 47
  • (2009) More than 2,000 people trapped for many hours inside the Channel Tunnel when five Eurostar trains broke down due to cold weather
  • (2009) David Cameron became prime minister; car carrying Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, attacked by protestors opposed to raising university tuitions
  • 2011 Libyan Foreign Minister, Moussa Koussa, defected to London; Prince William and Kate Middleton were married

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