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Kazakhstan History Timeline

Map of Kazakhstan
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Kazakhstan's Information

Flag of Kazakhstan
Land Area 2,699,700 km2
Water Area 25,200 km2
Total Area 2,724,900 km2
Population 18,360,353
Population Density 6.74 / km2
Government Type Presidential Republic
GDP (PPP) $469.00 Billion
GDP Per Capita $25,700
Currency Tenge (KZT)
Largest Cities
  • Almaty (2,000,900)
  • Karagandy (451,800)
  • Shymkent (414,032)
  • Taraz (358,153)
  • Nur-Sultan (345,604)
  • Pavlodar (329,002)
  • Ust-Kamenogorsk (319,067)
  • Kyzyl-Orda (300,000)
  • Kyzylorda (300,000)
  • Semey (292,780)
500 BC - 200 BC
  • (500 BC) Sakas inhabited present-day southern Kazakhstan
  • (200 BC) Eastern Kazakhstan under control of the Hsiung-nu, ancestors of the Huns
700 AD - 1900s
  • (700s AD) Arab invaders introduced Islam
  • (1219 - 1224) Mongol-Tatar tribes, led by Genghis Khan, invaded Kazakhstan and Central Asia
  • (1400s) Kazakh entity formed, Kazakhs became a strong ethnic group
  • (1600s) Kazakhs split into three groups: Elder, Middle and Lesser Zhuzes
  • (1731 - 1742) Three Zhuzes became part of Russia, sought protection from the Mongols
  • (1735) Orsk, the first Russian outpost was built
  • (1822 - 1868) Russia kept control of Kazakh tribes, in spite of many uprisings
  • (1832) Akmolinsk (present-day Astana) founded
  • (1868 - 1916) Thousands of peasants from Russia and Ukraine settled in Kazakhstan, set up industrial enterprises
1900s
  • (1916) Kazakhs revolt against Russian Czar, more than 300,000 flee, 150,000 people killed
  • (1917) Following Bolshevik revolution in Russia, civil war broke out in Kazakhstan
  • (1917) Kazakh nationals set up independent state
  • (1919) Kazakh nationals surrendered to Bolsheviks
  • (1920) Kazakhstan became autonomous republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
  • (1924) Women's suffrage enacted
  • (1930 - 1960) Millions of people, including German and Russian dissidents, died due to starvation and torture in gulag camps
  • (1936) Kazakhstan became full USSR union
  • (1940s) USSR Premier Stalin ordered mass deportation of hundreds of thousands of Koreans, Crimean Tatars, Germans to Kazakhstan
  • (1949) Nuclear test conducted in eastern Kazakhstan at Semipalatinsk testing ground
  • (1954-1962) Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, initiated campaign to develop virgin lands in Kazakhstan; nearly 2 million people, mostly Russians, moved; ethnic Kazakhs reduced to minority population
  • (1961) First manned spacecraft launched from Baikonur site in central Kazakhstan
  • (1965) USSR conducted nuclear test in eastern Kazakhstan
  • (1968) Soviet engineers diverted water from two feeder streams, Amu Darya and Syr Darya, causing Aral Sea to begin shrinking
  • (1971) Soviets tested weaponized smallpox, outbreak killed two children and one woman
  • (1986) Kazakh Dinmukhamed Kunaev, head of Communist Party of Kazakhstan (CPK) was replaced by Gennady Kolbin, an ethnic Russian, protests broke out in Almaty, at least two killed
  • (1989) Nursultan Nazarbayev, replaced Kolbin as head of CPK
  • (1989) Parliament proclaimed Kazakh as official state language and Russian the inter-ethnic communication language
  • (1990) Aral Sea split in two between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, left patch of desert between the two countries
  • (1990) Nursultan Nazarbayev elected first Kazakh president by Supreme Soviet
  • (1991) CPK withdrew from the Soviet Union's Communist Party
  • (1991) President Nazarbayev closed Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground
  • (1991) Nursultan Nazarbayev reelected in uncontested presidential election
  • (1991) Kazakhstan declared independence from Soviet Union
  • (1991) Kazakhstan was one of the 12 former Soviet republics to join the Commonwealth of Independent States, ended the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • (1992) Kazakhstan joined United Nations and Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
  • (1993) New constitution adopted, increased presidential power, launched privatization program
  • (1994) President Nazarbayev appointed Akezhan Kazhegeldin as prime minister
  • (1995) Economic and military cooperation pact signed with Russia, nuclear-free status obtained
  • (1995) President Nazarbayev's term extended until December 2000
  • (1995) New constitution adopted
  • (1995) Private ownership of land legalized
  • (1996) Swarms of locusts threatened two million acres of farmland in the Atyrauz and Kokchetav regions and along the Caspian Sea
  • (1997) China and Kazakhstan secured major oil agreements
  • (1997) Capital moved from Almaty to Admola in the northern part of the country
  • (1997) Admola renamed Astana
  • (1997) Amendments to constitution included extending president's term from five to seven years, removed upper age limit for president
  • (1997) President Nazarbayev fired Prime Minister Kazhegeldin, appointed Nurlan Balgimbayev as new prime minister
  • (1998) Russia, Kazakhstan signed agreement dividing northern part of Caspian Sea into Russian and Kazakh sectors
  • (1999) Nursultan Nazarbayev reelected president for a seven-year term
  • (1999) Kazakh authorities detained members of Russian nationalist group who were planning secessionist uprising
  • (1999) Switzerland froze over a dozen Kazakhstan bank accounts for alleged money laundering
2000s
  • (2000) Large oil reserve discovered in northern Caspian Sea off Kazakhstan's coast by consortium of Western oil companies
  • (2000) 11,000 seals found dead on Caspian Sea shores, deaths blamed on infectious disease from weakened immune systems due to pollutants
  • (2000) Last nuclear test facility destroyed
  • (2000) Security was increased on all borders following incursions by Islamic militants
  • (2001) First major pipeline running from oil field in western Kazakhstan to Black Sea port of Novorossiysk opened
  • (2001) Kazakhstan offered U.S. air and military bases for attacks on Afghanistan
  • (2001) Kazakhstan, China, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan launched Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) to fight ethnic and religious militancy and promote trade
  • (2001) Government officials accused of joining Democratic Choice reform movement were purged
  • (2002) Prime Minister Kasymzhomart Tokayev resigned, Imangali Tasmagambetov appointed to position by President Nazarbayev
  • (2003) Prime Minister Tasmagambetov resigned after battle with Parliament over land reform bill
  • (2003) Moratorium on death penalty announced
  • (2003) Decision made to create navy to help protect oil interests in Caspian Sea
  • (2004) China and Kazakhstan reached agreement on constructing of oil pipeline to Chinese border
  • (2004) President Nazarbayev's party won Parliamentary elections
  • (2004) Zharmakhan Tuyakbay, Parliament speaker, resigned in protest at voting results
  • (2005) Democratic Choice accused of breaching state security by calling for protests against election results; court ordered dissolution of party
  • (2005) Former Parliament speaker, Zharmakhan Tuyakbay, led "For a Just Kazakhstan" opposition movement
  • (2005) Critic of President Nazarbayev and opposition figure, Zamanbek Nurkadilov, found shot dead at his residence
  • (2005) President Nazarbayev won another seven-year term in presidential election
  • (2006) Former minister and leader of political opposition, Altynbek Sarsenbayev, was abducted in Almaty, found dead two days later along with his bodyguard and driver
  • (2006) Five central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan signed nuclear-free zone treaty
  • (2007) Prime Minister Daniyal Akhmetov resigned, Karim Masimov became prime minister
  • (2007) Parliament vote allows President Nazarbayev to stay in office for unlimited number of terms
  • (2007) Hundreds of dead seals washed up on Caspian Sea shoreline
  • (2007) Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan reached pipeline deal to increase amount of natural gas moved by Russia from Central Asia to Europe
  • (2007) President Nazarbayev fired son-in-law, diplomat Rakhat Aliyev, after he announced plan to run for presidency
  • (2007) President Nazarbayev's party won all seats in lower house of Parliament in elections
  • (2007) Opposition staged a demonstration in Almaty against rising prices, people hoarded food supplies, emptied shops
  • (2008) Rakhat Aliyev sentenced to 20 years imprisonment after being found guilty of plotting a coup, Aliyev denied all charges
  • (2008) Aliyev accused President Nazarbayev of diverting billions in state assets, other corruption
  • (2009) Kazakhstan devalued currency by 25% to protect foreign exchange and gold reserves due to falling oil prices
  • (2009) Kazakhstan pulled out of Central Asian power grid to protect energy supplies
  • (2009) Kazakhstan nationalized BTA Bank, chairman stripped of his position, exiled to London, more than a dozen bank managers arrested for alleged racketeering and money laundering
  • (2009) Laws governing control of internet were tightened, chat rooms, blogs and public forum now counted as mass media, bloggers could break laws by expressing views
  • (2009) France and Kazakhstan signed energy and business deals worth $6 billion
  • (2009) Kazakhstan agreed to allow French military to pass through on way to Afghanistan
  • (2010) President Nazarbayev given more powers including title of "leader of the nation", immunity from prosecution for acts committed during his term and the right to approve national and foreign policies after his retirement
  • (2010) Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia agreed to customs union
  • (2011) President Nazarbayev called for early presidential election, after plan to allow him to stay on until 2020 was ruled unconstitutional
  • (2011) President Nazarbayev won reelection
  • (2011) Police and striking oil workers clashed, 16 dead, government declared state of emergency
  • (2012) Elections were deemed undemocratic by observers, no opposition parties overcame threshold
  • (2012) Kazakhstan and Germany agreed to $4 billion partnership giving German companies rights to search for and mine rare earths and raw materials in exchange for technological and other investments
  • (2012) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan concluded agreement with NATO to allow the evacuation of military equipment from Afghanistan, avoiding Pakistan
  • (2012) Prime Minister Masimov resigned, Serik Akhmetov named prime minister
  • (2012) Kazakhstan elected to sit on UN Human Rights Council
  • (2013) Supreme Court sentenced six men 5-10 years for conspiring to assassinate government officials in Astana
  • (2014) Value of the currency fell by 19%
  • (2014) Prime Minister Akhmetov resigned, former Prime Minister Masimov renamed to post

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