The National Flag of San Marino was officially adopted on April 6, 1862.
The National Flag of San Marino features two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center. The main colors of the flag are said to be derived from the shield of the coat of arms. The white color symbolizes peace and also represents the snow covering Mt. Titano, which is San Marino's highest point. The blue color is symbolic of the sky above and also stands for liberty. The flag has a width-to-length ratio of 3:4.
The oldest flag recorded in the history of San Marino dates back to 1465. This flag featured three horizontal bands of orange, white and purple and had an emblem of three towers placed on three peaks in the center of the white band. This flag was used till 1862 when the current flag was adopted.
The National Coat of Arms of San Marino consists of a blue shield which is surmounted by a closed crown symbolizing sovereignty. Within the blue shield, there are three silver embattled towers on three green mountain peaks - representing the summits of San Marino's highest feature - Monte Titano. The three towers representing the citadels of San Marino (La Guaita, La Cesta, and La Montale). A silver ostrich feather is placed over each of the three towers. Surrounding the crown and shield are branches of green oak (on the right) and laurel (on the left) with golden fruits - which symbolize stability and defense and provide protection to the shield’s sides and intersect. San Marino's national motto: 'Libertas' (Freedom) is displayed on a silver ribbon below the shield.
"Inno Nazionale" is the national anthem of San Marino. The music of the anthem have been composed by Federico Consolo who was a famous Italian violinist and composer. The anthem has no official lyrics. The anthem was adopted in 1894.
The current official currency of San Marino is the euro (€, EUR). In San Marino, the Euro is divided into 100 centesimos The San Marino currency comprises both euro coins and banknotes.
Euro coins are issued in denominations of 50, 20, 10, 5, 2, and 1 centesimo. There are also denominations of 1- and 2-euro coins. However, the country is licensed to issue its euro coins according to their design; San Marino periodically issues its euro coins.
Euro banknotes in San Marino are issued in denominations of 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, and 5 Euros.
The country's economy is closely connected to the monetary and banking system in Italy. For the longest time, the Italian lira in this context known as the Sammarinese lira (ITL) was the official legal tender. Vatican City coins together with Italian banknotes and coins were the country’s legal tender. Sammarinese coins that were minted in Rome were not only used as a legal tender in the Vatican City but also throughout Italy. When Italy introduced the 1990 Banking Act, it featured a number of key adjustments as a part of the EU policy such as loosening restrictions on foreign capital regulations, creating conditions that aided in the reduction of the public ownership of banks, using a unified currency and free capital movement within member states of the EU. Italy together with 10 member states of the EU replaced their national currencies with the euro in 1999 as part of the European Central Bank (ECB). Initially, San Marino started using the Euro on January 1, 1999, for accounting purposes and electronic transfers only. However, the country started using the euro as its legal tender on January 1, 2002, when euro coins and bills were first issued. At the time the Italian currency in San Marino ceased to be the legal tender. One of the biggest challenges the Sammarinese government faced was adjusting to the requirements of a centralized European banking and monetary system without officially being a member of the European Union.