The Countries of Northern Europe

By Victor Kiprop on June 18 2018 in World Facts

A map showing the countries of Northern Europe.
A map showing the countries of Northern Europe.

Northern Europe is the geographic region that covers the northern part of the European continent. It consists of eight countries: Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden. Some definitions of the region sometimes also include the United Kingdom, Ireland, northern Belarus, northern Germany, and northwest Russia.

Geographic Boundaries

The narrow definition of Northern Europe is based on factors such as ecology and climate, but a broader definition defines Northern Europe as all European territories north of the Alps. Central Europe lies between Northern and Southern Europe. Historically, the Romans considered everything north of the Mediterranean region as Northern Europe, including what currently constitutes Central Europe. The boundaries of Northern Europe are defined by the volcanic islands of Jan Mayen and Iceland to the northwest, and the western part extends across the mountainous regions of Ireland and the United Kingdom. The northern part extends across the Scandinavian mountains to the hills of Sweden, while the eastern boundary consists of the eastern plains of Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, and Estonia.


The population of Northern Europe is estimated at 104 million. The region is among the most developed parts of the world. Northern European countries have developed economies and rank high globally in terms of standard of living. Apart from the United Kingdom, the other countries have smaller populations but are highly industrialized and urbanized. The majority of people in Northern Europe consider themselves Christians, although many are non-practicing. The religiously unaffiliated population is growing faster than the religiously affiliated population. The migration of Indians to the United Kingdom adds Hindu to the list of religions. Public services such as education, healthcare, and transport system are well-developed across Northern Europe.


The Gulf Stream affects the climate of Northern Europe. The western part of Northern Europe experiences marine subarctic climate, while the central and northern regions experience Arctic and subarctic climates, and the eastern part experiences temperate and subarctic climates. Vegetation varies across the region. In particular, sparse tundra covers the northern part, boreal forests cover the northeast, and temperate coniferous forests cover the central region. Northern Europe experiences very harsh winters, except for the United Kingdom and Ireland, which receive warm air from the Gulf Stream.

Which Countries Are Considered Part of Northern Europe?

Rank´╗┐Countries of Northern Europe
10United Kingdom

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