Jutland is a large peninsula in Northern Europe that forms all of continental Denmark and the Schleswig-Holstein state in northern Germany. The name “Jutland” comes from the Danish word “Jylland.” The land of the Jutland Peninsula is relatively flat, with heaths, peat hogs, plains, and open land towards the west. However, the eastern side is more elevated and has a slightly hilly terrain.
Prior to 1920, the Duchy of Schleswig existed in the southernmost part of Jutland. Today, the area that used to be known as the Duchy of Schleswig is divided, with Northern Schleswig a part of Denmark and Southern Schleswig a part of Germany.
Jutland has several neighbors. Located to the west of Jutland is the North Sea, to the east is the Baltic and Kattegat Sea, to the south is Germany, and Skagerrak is to the north. For ease and speed in transport between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, there are two canals: Eider and Kiel. The peninsula is divided into four geographic regions namely East, West, North and South Jutland. East Jutland includes Mols, while the North Jutland region is inclusive of Thy, Himmerland, and Vendsyssel.
Besides the geographical regions, Jutland has political divisions called the Region of Southern Denmark, Central Denmark Region, and North Denmark Region. The total area of the three political regions is 29,775 square kilometers whereas the total population of the area in 2016 was 2,599,104. Consequently, the population density of the Jutland peninsula is 84 per square kilometer.
The Limfjord separates the most northern part of Jutland into two from coast to coast. The division took place in 1825 after a great flood. This region of the peninsula is called the North Jutlandic Island. Other islands associated with the Jutland peninsula either historically or administratively are Anholt, Als, Samsø, and Læsø. However, Læsø and Als are considered separate districts from Jutland. The lands of Denmark historically refer to three areas known as Jutland, Zealand, and Scania. Previously, Jutland served as home to Cimbri, Teuton, and Charudes.
Danish and German Areas of Jutland
The Danish part of the Jutland peninsula consists of several large cities including Aalborg, Kolding, Herning, Randers, Aarhus, Silkeborg, and Fredericia. On the other hand, the cities in the German part of Jutland include Kiel (which is the largest city), Hamburg, Neumünster, Flensburg, and Lübeck. The German area is made up of Schleswig-Holstein. There exists a River Eider which was the border of former duchies of Holstein and Schleswig. Historically, River Eider was the boundary between the German and Danish Realms. Most Germans residing in Jutland consider themselves either Northern Germans or Schleswig-Holsteiner.
The Battle of Jutland
The Battle of Jutland was among the largest naval battles in world history. It took place during the First World War off the coast of North West Jutland. The war was between the Imperial German Navy and British Royal Navy. It resulted in many casualties and loss of ships for both sides. Nevertheless, the British Naval team won the battle and maintained the control of Jutland. Their fleet sustained huge losses in spite of their win. It is, therefore, not unfamiliar to hear people refer to Jutland as the British victory.