The Bay of Bengal is located in Asia, and it borders four countries: Bangladesh is to its northern, Myanmar to its east, and India and Sri Lanka to its west. The Bay covers an area of 2,172,000 square kilometers, which makes it the largest bay in the world. The hydrographic organization states that the Bay of Bengal is to the rearmost end of Cape Negrais in Burma. The Bay runs through the more significant islands of the Andaman group. Therefore, the water between these islands extends further to the west of the line towards the southwest limits of Burma Sea. To the west, the Bay of Bengal is within the islands of Nicobar group extending to the little island of Sandy Point. The precise coordinates if the Bay of Bengal is 15°N and 88°E.
The name "Bay" came from the adoption of the ancient Bengal territory which was an Indian state. Formerly, the Bay was known as Bongoposagor, which is a Sanskrit name meaning Eastern ocean. In the 16th century, the Portuguese built a trading center in the north of the Bay of Bengal at Porto Grande and Porto Pequeno.
The main river which drains into the Bay of Bengal is the Ganga River which originates from the Himalayas Mountains and flows through the Republic of Bangladesh. The river converges with the Meghan River and finally flows into the Bay. Several streams feed the Bay, most of them originating from Bangladesh. Other subsidiary rivers are from Sri Lanka and Myanmar.
During the colonial period, the Bay of Bengal was the venture for the British India Company that traded along the bay's shorelines. Currently, the four countries that border the Bay of Bengal depends on it to connect to the South Asia region and the southeast Asia region. Since the Bay of Bengal is at the center of the two Asian areas south and southeast, it serves the two economic blocks SAARC and ASEAN. South China is landlocked and therefore the Bay of Bengal is of great importance because it acts as a primary seaport for the importation and exportation of product within the Asian continent. The Bay of Bengal is also a significant tourist attraction site due to its strategic location and its famous historical sites including the Buddhist heritage sites of Bovikanda and Thatlakonda on the coast India.
The ocean currents in the Bay of Bengal vary by the time of the year. From January to October the currents flow northwards and in a clockwise manner, and they are referred to as the East India Currents. In May, monsoons move northwest striking the Nicobar and Andaman Islands before striking India in late June. During the rest of the year, the East India Winter Jet current moves anticlockwise and flow southwest.