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What are the Republics of Russia?

The Federation of Russia is divided into republics.

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The Federation of Russia is divided into 85 constituent units known as federal subjects. Of the 85 federal subjects, 21 are republics (22 if Crimea is included). The republics of Russia differ from other federal subjects in that they operate under their own constitution and have a right to establish own language. The republics are also granted extensive autonomy, though the level of the autonomy varies. Before 2010, the chief executives were being referred to as presidents. However, the federal laws were amended which reserved the title exclusively to the head of state. The republics also have their own assemblies that have often passed laws that are at odds with the federal laws.

The Republics of Russia and Their Populations

Adygea

  • Population: 440,388
  • District: Southern Federal District (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Maykop
  • Languages: Russian, Adyghe 

Altai

  • Population: 206,195
  • District: Siberian Federal District (Asia) 
  • Capital city: Gorno-Altaysk 
  • Languages: Russian, Altay 

Bashkortostan

  • Population: 4,072,102* 
  • District: Volga (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Ufa 
  • Languages: Russian, Tatar, Bashkir 

*Most populated republic in Russia. 

Buryatia 

  • Population: 972,658 
  • District: Siberian Federal District (Asia) 
  • Capital city: Ulan-Ude 
  • Languages: Russian, Buryat 

Chechnya

  • Population: 1,103,686
  • District: North Caucasus (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Grozny  
  • Languages: Russian, Chechen 

Chuvashia

  • Population: 1,251,599 
  • District: Volga (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Cheboksary 
  • Languages: Russian, Chuvash 

Crimea*

  • Population: 2,284,769 
  • District: Southern Federal District (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Sevastopol  
  • Languages: Russian, Ukrainian, Crimean Tatar 

*The Crimean peninsula is considered to be a part of Ukraine by most members of the international community. 

Dagestan

  • Population: 2,576,531
  • District: North Caucasus (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Makhachkala 
  • Languages: Russian, Dargwa 

Ingushetia

  • Population: 467,294 
  • District: North Caucasus (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Magas 
  • Languages: Russian, Ingush 

Kalmykia

  • Population: 289,464
  • District: Southern (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Elista 
  • Languages: Russian, Kalmyk 

Karachay-Cherkessia 

  • Population: 478,517
  • District: North Caucasian (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Cherkessk 
  • Languages: Russian, Abaza, Cherkess, Karachay, Nogai 

Kabardino-Balkaria 

  • Population: 859,802
  • District: North Caucasian (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Nalchik 
  • Languages: Russian, Kabardian, Karachay-Balkar 

Karelia 

  • Population: 643,548
  • District: Northwestern (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Petrozavodsk 
  • Languages: Russian

Khakassia 

  • Population: 532,403
  • District: Siberian (Asia) 
  • Capital city: Abakan
  • Languages: Russian, Khakas 

Komi 

  • Population: 901,189
  • District: Northwestern (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Syktyvkar 
  • Languages: Russian, Komi 

Mari El 

  • Population: 696,357
  • District: Volga (Europe)  
  • Capital city: Yoshkar-Ola 
  • Languages: Russian, Mari 

Mordovia

  • Population: 834,819
  • District: Volga (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Saransk 
  • Languages: Russian, Mordvin 

North Ossetia-Alania

  • Population: 712,877
  • District: North Caucasian (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Vladikavkaz  
  • Languages: Russian, Ossetian 

Sakha Republic

  • Population: 958,291
  • District: Far Eastern (Asia) 
  • Capital city: Yakutsk 
  • Languages: Russian, Yakut

Tatarstan 

  • Population: 3,786,358
  • District: Volga (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Kyzyl 
  • Languages: Russian, Tatarstan

Tuva 

  • Population: 307,930
  • District: Siberian (Asia) 
  • Capital city: Elista 
  • Languages: Russian, Tuvan 

Udmurtia 

  • Population: 1,522,761
  • District: Volga (Europe) 
  • Capital city: Izhevsk
  • Languages: Russian, Udmurt 

 

 

Status of the Republic of Crimea

The Republic of Crimea was annexed by Russia as one of its federal subjects in March 2014 following a takeover by the Russian Armed Forces. An unconstitutional referendum was conducted in 2014 with a large majority of Crimean expressing their desire to join with Russia. While Russia and some of the UN member countries recognize it as part of Russia, most of the international community and Ukraine do not recognize the accession and considers the Republic of Crimea as part of Ukraine. Some of the citizens of Crimea have also refused to get Russian citizenship with about 9,000 Crimean residents receiving Ukrainian passporst between March 2014 and October 2016.

The Republics of Russia

Rank´╗┐Republic NamePopulation
1Bashkortostan4,072,102
2Tatarstan3,786,358
3Dagestan2,576,531
4Crimea (disputed as part of Ukraine)2,284,769
5Udmurtia1,522,761
6Chuvashia1,251,599
7Chechnya1,103,686
8Buryatia972,658
9Sakha Republic958,291
10Komi901,189
11Karbardino-Balkaria859,802
12Mordovia834,819
13North Ossetia-Alania712,877
14Mari El696,357
15Karelia 643,548
16Khakassia532,403
17Karachay-Cherkessia478,517
18Ingushetia467,294
19Adygea440,388
20Tuva307,930
21Kalmykia289,464
22Altai206,195

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