Global fish production has continued to grow at an annual rate of 3.2% according to FAO report. Fish consumption has also increased from 9.9kg to 19.2kg. Development in fish production and consumption has been driven by population growth, urbanization, increasing income and improved distribution channels. Global marine food production has been on the rise because of the developments along the marine coastal lines. Aquaculture also continues to grow with 90.4 million tons of fish reared annually. Some of the leading countries in fishing and aquaculture output include:
China accounts for 30% of world fish production and 60% of world’s aquaculture production. Aquaculture accounts for two-thirds of China’s fish production. China’s aquaculture accounts for more than the total fish production in India. China’s annual fish production is 76.15 billion kilograms with 25% (14 million) people engaged in fishing or as fish farmers. China has three major fishing zones, coastal fisheries, distant fisheries, and inland fisheries. Aquaculture is very common in China especially the Cyprinus Carpio is widely farmed. Aquaculture is practiced both in fresh and in sea water. There are several ponds along Pearl River and Yangtze River that produce tons of fish for rural consumption. The government also supports the rural to get rid of poverty through fishing and aquaculture.
Indonesia has continued to experience growth in fish production over the years. The increase in fish production in Indonesia is supported by both captured and cultivated fish. A total of 5.8 million tons (20.88 billion kilograms) of fish is produced annually with inland marine fishing accounting for 70% of the annual catch. Marine fisheries are grouped into small scale comprising of artisanal, commercial, and large-scale or industrial fisheries. Fishing is mainly motorized with the use of trawls, purse seines, and long lines. Aquaculture is practiced primarily in fresh water with carp, tilapia, and gouramis fish commonly farmed.
Fishing in India is mostly carried out in the coastal states. India has a coastal marine line stretching 7,517 kilometers while fresh water consists of 195,210km of rivers and canals. India exports its fish to almost 90 countries around the world accounting for about $1.8 billion with Shrimp and giant tiger prawn being the common fishes exported. Marine, freshwater, and aquaculture fishing account for 9.60 billion kilograms fish production annually. Aquaculture in India is practiced to great water bodies, tanks, and ponds. Most of these ponds are owned by individuals while the government has also contracted people to produce fish on its behalf.
Vietnam fishing sector is a critical part of Vietnamese economy and has experienced significant growth over the years reaching 6.33 billion kilograms annually. This important fish growth is attributed to aquaculture which has grown by 30% over the last decade. The local and international demand for fish has pushed Vietnam to improve its fish production. Most of the Vietnam fish produced is mainly for export especially to US, Japan, Russia, and Asian countries. The common fish in Vietnam are shrimp, clams, and striped catfish.
Some of the other leading countries in fishing and aquaculture output are the US producing 5.41 billion kilograms of fish annually, Myanmar 5.05 billion kilograms, Japan 4.77 billion kilograms, Philippines 4.69 billion kilograms, Russia 4.40 billion kilograms and Chile 3.82 billion kilograms. These countries’ fish production is mainly aided by the large water bodies, especially along the marine coastlines, lakes, and rivers. Aquaculture is also a major source of fish and is primarily carried out in ponds, tanks, and large water bodies.