In Canada, life expectancy at birth as of 2014 was 81.67 years. The death rate in Canada, as of 2017, was 7.5 deaths per 1,000 of the population. Infant mortality rates are 4.4 per 1,000 people. Although improvements have been recorded over the past decades, Canada still has one of the highest infant mortality rates among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries (OECD). The infant mortality rate is especially higher for Native Canadians.
The Health Sector
Canada primarily has a universal healthcare system which is publicly funded and covers all Individuals in the country. Hence, everyone is entitled to an equal level of care, regardless of race, social status, gender, etc. However, there may be slight differences in health coverage by province. This Universal healthcare system covers treatments ranging from prescriptions to surgeries, but not cosmetic surgeries. All individuals must possess a valid health card to be eligible for health services. In addition to public health which is provided by the government, there are also private clinics.
Despite Canada's affordable healthcare system, some areas still offer room for improvement. In the province of Ontario, for instance, and other provinces as well, the most common problem is the availability of beds for patients. This decreased availability has subsequently resulted in long wait times before individuals have access to physicians or are discharged from hospitals. Those in rural areas typically experience problems with accessing hospitals due to the cost of transportation. This limited access to hospitals is problematic, seeing that this is the population that is more likely to need healthcare, due to a number of factors such as poverty. Access to out-of-hospital treatments such as home-care is also expensive and thus very limited.
Malignant Neoplasms (Cancer)
Cancer is a dangerous growth or malignant tumor resulting from uncontrolled cell-division. Cancers are usually life-threatening in nature and affect parts of the body such as the breast, brain, lungs, etc. The most prevalent of these cancers is lung cancer for both men and women. The reason this is a leading cause of death is due to high tobacco and alcohol use among people in Canada. High-fat diets also contribute to this ailment, especially pancreatic cancer.
Diseases Of Heart (Heart Disease)
These are any series of diseases affecting the heart, e.g., heart attacks. The prevalence of high tobacco consumption rates, poor diet, and sedentary lifestyles are risk factors for heart diseases. Furthermore, only a small percentage of youths incorporate exercise into their daily lives. An inactive lifestyle coupled with high-calorie diets leads to obesity and subsequently various heart diseases. High indulgence in cigarette smoking and alcohol use by most of the population equally contributes to heart diseases.
Cerebrovascular Diseases (Stroke)
Stroke is caused by an interrupted supply of blood to the brain and is a leading cause of death in Canada for a variety of reasons, especially high sodium intake. High salt intake leads to high blood pressure or hypertension, and once this happens, stroke becomes highly probable. A vast number of Canadians especially adults consume relatively high amounts of salt daily in pre-packaged foods especially, thus the reason for this disease being a leading cause of death in the country. Smoking and alcohol abuse which is high in Canada can also be a contributing factor.
Accidents (unintentional injuries)
These are unexpected occurrences that could take place in a matter of split seconds and range from vehicle accidents to falls and drowning. The most common in this country is, however, vehicle accidents and falls. Most accidents tend to occur during summer.
Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases
These are diseases affecting the supply of oxygen to the lungs, e.g., asthma. The reason for this being a leading cause of death is due primarily to air pollution, like smoking. This includes both individual smoking and second-hand exposure. Research shows that tobacco use is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in Canada, signifying over-indulgence in smoking. Emissions from Industries which is relatively high as a developed country also affects air quality and increases the risk of Chronic lower respiratory diseases.
Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes)
The body's inability to produce sufficient insulin for sugar conversion results in diabetes. Due to the high daily intake of sugar in Canada, this disease is a leading cause of death. Sugars exist in foods in different forms, like prepackaged foods and drinks or beverages. During Canada's extreme winter season, for instance, beverage consumption increases, and during the summer, soda/juice intake also becomes very high.
This is a gradual loss of memory, which becomes worse at each stage. There are a number of reasons for Alzheimer's being a leading cause of death, and all of these are already risk factors for other diseases in the country. Some reasons include diabetes, hypertension (heart diseases), repetitive head injuries (e.g., accidents resulting from falls), smoking, etc. All these factors are linked to the above mentioned leading causes of death in Canada.
Influenza And Pneumonia
Influenza is a respiratory disease caused by a series of different influenza viruses which may lead to pneumonia if it becomes serious. Pneumonia is a viral infection where the air sacs in the lungs become inflamed and full of pus. The reason for these being leading causes of death is due to Canada's extreme cold climates, as these ailments are usually on the rise between November and April-the winter season.
Intentional Self-Harm (suicide)
There is no particular reason for this being a leading cause of death, but research usually points towards depression which is quite high in the country. People who have experienced traumatic events are the most likely population to self-harm or commit suicide.