There is often much confusion surrounding the terms Great Britain, the United Kingdom, and England. While these names are often used interchangeably, this is not correct. England and the United Kingdom are not, in fact, the same place. The United Kingdom actually refers to the four countries of Northern Ireland, Scotland, England, and Wales. All four are individual countries. England is a country that makes up part of the greater United Kingdom.
Evidence of early life in England is that of the Homo Antecessor which dates back to about 780,000 years ago. Despite modern humans inhabiting the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, it took longer for permanent settlement to be established; records show that the region was permanently inhabited within the last 6,000 years.
“England” is derived from an old English name “Englaland” which translates to the land of Angles. The Angles are a tribe from Anglia that settled in Great Britain during the early middle ages.
England is part of the United Kingdom; this makes the governance a monarchy and a parliamentary system. The last time England had a government, was the year 1707, right before the Treaty of Union that unified England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain was effected. Before the unification, England had its Monarchy and Parliament system, but today governance is under the United Kingdom's parliament, which is broken into smaller devolved governments. The House of Commons is made up of 650 members of parliament. Out of this figure 532 members are representatives of constituencies in England.
England is divided into four subnational regions for local governance. The region is further divided into 48 ceremonial counties. The purpose of this division is geographical referencing. The Monarchy representatives in a county are the Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff.
England takes up almost all of the central and Southern part of the island that makes Great Britain, two thirds to be specific. A big part of England’s topography is plains and low hills. The northern and western side of the country is however made up of uplands and mountainous grounds. The climate in England can be described as temperate maritime climate. The temperature in the winter is about 0 °C (32 °F) while in the summer England registers high temperatures of 32 °C (90 °F). January and February are the coolest months while May, June, September, and October register warmer weather.
England boasts of one of the largest economies worldwide. The average GDP per capita is £22,907. This economy is considered mixed market has incorporated a lot of free-market principles. England's economy is the backbone of United Kingdom’s economy. England being the home of the Industrial revolution puts the country many steps ahead through inventions like the first computer, the jet engine and the first industrial spinning machine among many others.
England has a population of more than 53 million people. This figure makes the country the most populated in the United Kingdom. England makes up for 84% of the United Kingdom’s population.
The English language which is widespread throughout the world originated from England. It is spoken by 98% of the country’s population.