A doubly landlocked state refers to a landlocked nation that is surrounded by other landlocked countries. Out of the forty landlocked states in the world, there are only two doubly landlocked countries, and this includes Uzbekistan and Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein became the first doubly landlocked state after the Second World War while Uzbekistan gained its independence in 1991. People living in these nations have to cross two international borders to get to a coastline.
Liechtenstein is a German-speaking mini-state in Central Europe. It is a constitutional monarch state under the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is a doubly landlocked state that is surrounded by Austria and Switzerland. It is the fourth smallest nation in the world which occupies an area of about 62 square miles and has a population of about 38,111 people. Liechtenstein is divided into eleven municipalities with Schaan being the largest municipality and Vaduz the capital. Liechtenstein is the smallest nation on earth to be surrounded by two other countries.
There were no doubly landlocked states from 1871 (at the time of Germany unification) until the First World War ended. Liechtenstein was bordering the Austro-Hungary Empire which was bordered the Adriatic Sea. After the Austria-Hungary was dissolved in 1918, Liechtenstein became the only double-landlocked state until 1938. The Nazi annexed Austria on March 12, 1938, into the Third Reich which shared a border with the North Sea and Baltic Sea. After the Second World War Austria became independent and Liechtenstein became a double landlocked nation.
Uzbekistan is a unitary constitutional state made up of twelve provinces, a capital city and an autonomous republic. It is a doubly landlocked state which is enclosed by five landlocked countries including Turkmenistan to the southwestern side, Afghanistan to the southern parts, Tajikistan to the southeast, Kyrgyzstan to the northeast and Kazakhstan to the northern side.
Due to its strategic location and unique history, the country has a diverse cultural heritage. Uzbek is the official language in the country which is spoken by over 85% of the population. The second language which widely taught in Uzbekistan is Russian. The Uzbeks make up over 81% of the community and the Russians (5.4%), Kazakhs (3%), and Tajik (4%) among others. Over 79% of the citizens are Muslims, and 5% are the adherents of the Russian Orthodox Christians. Uzbekistan has a population of over 32,979,000 people and occupies an area of about 173.351 square miles.
The Soviet Union absorbed Uzbekistan in 1917 after the Toppling of the Russian Kingdom. It gained its independence after the Soviet was dissolved and became the second double landlocked state in 1991. However, this status depends on the dispute of the status of the Caspian Sea. Numerous nations like Turkmenistan and Iran believe that it should be a real sea. If the Caspian Sea becomes a real sea then, Uzbekistan would become a landlocked nation since two of its neighbors (Turkmenistan and Iran) will have access to the sea.