The Great Wall of China is located along the historical borders of northern China. It is a sequence of fortifications constructed out of stone, wood, tamped earth, bricks, and other materials. The fortifications were constructed from 7th century BCE in order to provide protection to Chinese states and empires against attacks from nomadic groups who lived in the Eurasian Steppe. Other sections were erected in later times during different dynasties. In total, the wall has a length of about 13,171 miles. On average, it has a height of between 20 and 23 feet with the tallest portion going as far high as 46 feet. Located in a mountainous region with a height of about 4,722 feet, the Huanglouyuan Section has the highest altitude while the Laolongtou Section is the lowest with a height of just above sea level. In terms of width, the wall has an average distance of between 13 and 16 feet at the top while the base averages around 21 feet.
Construction of the Great Wall of China
The construction work took more than 2,500 years from the 7th century BCE. Before the start of the construction, the Chinese were already well versed in wall-building techniques. However, the first strong structure was constructed during the Qin Dynasty which existed between 221 and 207 BCE. This dynasty was established after the first emperor, Emperor Qin Shihuang, defeated other smaller warring Chinese states and decided to form a united China. The warring states that were captured had also built wall fortifications although they were not that strong since they were designed to protect from spears and other forms of light weaponry. These states included the likes of the state of Chu (which was the first to build a wall fortification), Qi, Zhao, Qin, Wei, and Yan. Emperor Qin Shihuang ordered the destruction of the weak walls so that new ones could be brought up, which occurred about 2,200 years ago.
Subsequent Chinese dynasties extended, repaired, or expanded the wall at different times in history. Some of the notable dynasties that made massive changes to the wall included the Han Dynasty (202-220 CE) and the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 CE). The Han Great Wall, which is the section that was built by the Han Dynasty, is the longest section. In addition, there were four periods of construction and repair during this period. As for the Ming Dynasty, there was a period of around 200 years that was dedicated to the repair and construction of new sections. Despite its effectiveness, it was sometimes ineffective in keeping enemies out such as in 1644 when the Manchu Qing managed to remove the Ming Dynasty. The final construction work done on the wall was back in 1878 in the later phases of the Qing Dynasty, which existed from 1644 to 1911. The construction and maintenance stopped since the wall was rendered obsolete by more advanced weaponry such as fire and explosives.
The Great Wall of China Today
Today, the parts of the wall that are still in good condition were erected or maintained during the Ming Dynasty. Some sections have been renovated in recent times while others have been destroyed. Some of the best and most widely known sections from the Ming Dynasty include Jinshanling, Simatai, Mutianyu, and Badaling. The Great Wall of China is a popular tourist attraction offering magnificent views, with several sections having been declared AAAAA-rated tourist attractions.