Chechnya is a Russian Federal Subject in the North Caucasus, about 62 miles from the Caspian Sea. Chechnya was part of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR until 1991 when the Soviet Union was dissolved. Chechnya gained its sovereignty after the first Chechen war, but Russia restored their control over the region during the Second Chechen War.
The Capital Of Chechnya
The capital city of the Chechnya is Grozny. Grozny occupies an area of about 125.16 sq miles and had a population of over 271,573 people by 2010. Grozny was referred to as Groznaya until 1870. Grozny is split into four districts (Oktyabrsky, Staropromyslovsky, Zavodskoy, and Leninsky). Grozny’s industries are in Oktyabrsky.
General Petrovich Yermolov founded the Groznaya fortress as a Russian outpost on River Sunzha in 1818. The fortress was a unique defense-center for the Russians when they invaded the Caucasus from 1817-1864. The fort became obsolete after the Russian Empire annexed the region and named it Grozny. The area was granted town status and renamed Grozny in December 1869. Grozny’s population grew at a slow rate until the early twentieth century when oil reserves were discovered in the region. Grozny was one of the main cities of the Soviet Mountain Republic. The city served as National Okrug’s administrative center after the dissolution of the Soviet Mountain Republic on November 30, 1922. The city was occupied by the Ingush and the Chechens until 1944 when they were deported after they rebelled against the Soviet rule.
After the Soviet Union collapsed, the city became the separatist government’s seat. Dudayev Dzhokhar was the leader of the separatist government. All the non-Chechens including the Russians were chased away from the city, after the separatist government took over, by a group of soldiers. The Russian government tried to overthrow Dzhokhar using the Chechen opposition soldiers but failed. Russia managed to take over the city after the first Chechen War, but they were forced out by the Chechen guerrilla units. The Russian military finally recaptured the city in February 2000. The Russian army heavily bombed Grozny during the two Chechen Wars; therefore the Russian government started rebuilding the city from scratch in 2003.
The city experiences a humid continental climate with cold winters and hot summers. August is the hottest month in the city when they record high temperature of about 41.4°C. Grozny receives mean annual precipitation of about 7.3 inches with 70 precipitation days every year. January is the coldest month in Grozny when the temperature ranges from -0.62°C to 0.6°C.
Grozny received its first train in 1893. The city opened its Tram system to the public in 1932. The tram system was destroyed during the first and second Chechen wars. A Trolleybus system was introduced in the Grozny n 1975. After the wars, the Russian government decided to rebuild the Trolley bus system only. The city’s main airport is Grozny Airport.