Equatorial Guinea is a nation located in Central Africa. The country encompasses an area of 28,000 square kilometers and has a population of 1,222,245 individuals. Equatorial Guinea is made up of two parts, a mainland, and an insular region. The mainland region is bordered to the east and south by Gabon and by Cameroon to the north. The insular region consists of only two islands, Bioko and Annobón. As a former Spanish colony, Equatorial Guinea is the only African country with Spanish as the official language.
What Type of Government Does Equatorial Guinea Have?
Equatorial Guinea is governed as a presidential republic, in which the President serves as both the head of government and head of state. The legislative powers are vested in the unicameral legislature called the Chamber of People's Representatives. However, as a one-party dominant state, the president holds extensive powers and can dismiss members of the cabinet or even dissolve the legislature. Although opposition parties can exist in Equatorial Guinea, they must acknowledge the dominance of the Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea.
What Is the Capital of Equatorial Guinea?
Malabo is the current capital of Equatorial Guinea, and also serves as the capital of the province of Bioko Norte. However, the nation's capital is expected to shift to Ciudad de la Paz, a planned city currently under construction. Malabo has an area of 21 square km, a population of 297,000, and a population density of 14,000 individuals per square km.
Where Is The Capital Located?
Malabo is located on the northern coast of the island of Bioko. The Consul River forms the southern limits of the city, and a tropical monsoon climate prevails in the region.
Ciudad de la Paz, which means "City of Peace," is the future capital of Equatorial Guinea, and will be located on mainland Africa. Currently, it is the capital of the country's newest province, Djibloho, created in 2017.
History of Malabo
The island of Bioko, where Malabo is located, was discovered by Portuguese explorers in 1472. Portugal made attempts to establish colonies on the island, but these attempts were ultimately abandoned given the resistance from the region's indigenous population of the region, as well as diseases. Spain was later granted control of the island by the Portuguese, but lost interest in the land, and eventially Spanish Guinea became ruled by British colonists. A British military base named Port Clarence was established at the site of present-day Malabo on December 25, 1827. The base was built to help facilitate the British slave trade. With the arrival of slaves in Port Clarence, the population of the settlement grew rapidly. In 1844, Spain expressed interest to regain control of the island from the British. In 1855, Spain acquired the island and Port Clarence was renamed Santa Isabel. It became the capital of the island of Fernando Pó (later renamed the island of Bioko). The city became the capital of Equatorial Guinea following the country's independence from Spanish colonial rule on October 12, 1968. Santa Isabel was renamed as Malabo in 1973.
Role of Malabo As the Capital of Equatorial Guinea
Malabo is home to important government offices, departments, ministries, and other main government institutions. However, these are being gradually shifted to Ciudad de la Paz. Malabo is also Equatorial Guinea's main financial and commercial center. The city's harbor is also the export hub of export of timber, coffee, and cocoa.