Sometimes, states are not fully recognized as sovereign states because of unresolved disputes with their respective neighboring states that refuse to grant them independence or to recognize their independence. The United Nations has a policy that encourages such states to resolve their border disputes peacefully. The named states have been trying to negotiate their independence for years with no success. The international economy does not recognize these states as both de facto and de jure sovereign states.
Transnistria is a landlocked state that borders Moldova and Ukraine. It is officially known as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR). Transnistria has a population of over 505,153 who mainly speak Russian. Other languages spoken in Transnistria are Romanian and Ukrainian. The capital city of Transnistria is Tiraspol. It is also the largest city in the Republic. Transnistria declared its independence in 1990 though most of the international community considers it as part of the Republic Of Moldova. Transnistria has allowed freedom of religion with over 95 percent of its inhabitants identifying as Christian. It has a mixed economy based on steel production and manufacturing which mainly deals in textile production. The Transnistrian government has its own Central Bank which mints the Transnistrian Ruble which is the currency used. Historically, the Transnistrian economy was heavily industrialized but switched to planned economy and ultimately to the mixed economy currently in operation.The economy of Transnistria has developed so much that it also engages in imports and export of goods. Transnistria has been accused in the past of not promoting human rights due to the restrictions placed on the media and the major newspapers being owned by the authorities. Independent newspaper owners reported being harassed by the government. The government of Transnistria is one made of both the President and Prime Minister.
4. Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus is a self-declared state located in the Northeastern part of the Island of Cyprus. It has a population of 313,626 and got independence from the Republic of Cyprus in 1983. It is only Turkey which recognizes Northern Cyprus as an independent state while the rest of the world considers it a part of the Republic of Cyprus. The capital city of Northern Cyprus is North Nicosia. Northern Cyprus has a semi-presidential democracy, led by both president and prime minister. The climate of Northern Cyprus is cool and rainy, with winter between the months of December and February and hot and dry weather in the other months. The climatic conditions vary by the geography of an area. It is also important to note that the economy of Northern Cyprus is hugely influenced by the services sector which is made up of the education, trade, tourism and public sector. The education sector contributes the highest revenue for instance in 2011 the revenue was US$ 400 million. The Northern Turkey’s currency is the Turkish Lira. The Tourism industry in Northern Cyprus greatly developed over the years such that it receives over 1.1 million tourists in a year.
3. Republic of Abkhazia
The Republic of Abkhazia is situated on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of Russia and northwest of Georgia. It has a population of about 240,000 with its capital at Sukhumi. Russia recognizes Abkhazia as an independent state, however many other countries and the international community do not. As such it has remained part of Georgia for many years in a case yet to be resolved. The United Nations has played varied roles in the conflict and peace process including military, humanitarian, development and confidence and capacity building roles. It maintains that international border settlements must be negotiated and cannot be achieved through force. Abkhazia possesses a diverse geography which includes lowlands and mountainous regions. It is irrigated by small rivers whose sources are the Caucasus Mountains. The Republic of Abkhazia hosts the deepest cave in the world known as Krubera Cave. Its economy is highly integrated with Russia which finances about half of their budget through aid money. Their currency is the Russian ruble. Abkhazia has fertile lands which facilitate the growth of agricultural products such as fruits, tobacco, tea and wine. Most of the Abkhazia inhabitants are Christians, while others are Sunni Muslims or irreligious. The languages spoken in Abkhazia are Abkhaz, Russian, Armenian, Georgian, Svan and Mingrelian.
2. Republic of South Ossetia
The Republic of South Ossetia is also known as Tskhinvali Region. It is located in South Caucasus which borders South-Western Russia. It has a population of about 53,000 people who speak Ossetian and Russian languages. The capital city of South Ossetia is Tskhinvali which has 30,000 of the total population of South Ossetia living in it. The Republic of South Ossetia attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. The declaration of independence was met by the Georgian government forcefully trying to regain its control over South Ossetia leading to the 1991-1992 South Ossetia and 2004 and 2008 Russia-Georgia Wars. After the Russia-Georgia War, South Ossetia was recognized by Russia as an independent state. However, the European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), most UN member states and Council of Europe do not recognize it as a sovereign state. Most of the citizens of South Ossetia are Christians; however, other religions include Islam and Neopagans. Economically, the majority of the Ossetians engage in subsistence farming. South Ossetia still depends largely on economic assistance from Russia. The government seeks to boost its local production of flour to complement the revenue received from the control of the Roki Tunnel. If it succeeds South Ossetia will be able to reduce its poverty threshold.
Kosovo is located in Southeast Europe. It is currently not fully recognized as an independent state because it is a disputed territory in spite of it declaring its independence from Serbia in 2008. Serbia has claimed that Kosovo is part of its “Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.”The capital city of the Republic of Kosovo is Pristina. Kosovo has a middle-income economy and has had yearly economic growth since 2008. It is a member of the international community as the United Nations recognizes it as an independent state evidenced by its membership in the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. Kosovo has a president elected by its citizens called Fatmir Sejdiu. Kosovo’s terrain is mostly mountainous with the highest peak being Gjeravica at 8,714 feet high. It has two main rivers are White Drin and Ibar. The largest city which is also the capital city of Kosovo has a population of 198,000 people. Its climate is characterized by humid temperatures resulting in warm summers and cold and snowy winters. The Republic of Kosovo is governed by the legislature, executive, and judiciary which draw their principles from the Constitution of Kosovo.
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