The population is often considered as a source of economic, military, and political strength. However, a high population (overpopulation) can also be considered a threat to the environment and resources. However, population growth is a factor that can be managed. Human population planning is a means of intentionally controlling the human population growth rate. The practice may involve increasing or reducing the rate of human population growth. Below are some of the population control methods that are sometimes used.
Effective Population Control Methods
Higher taxation for parents with more children is one of the methods that can be used to control the population. This method of population control ensures that taxpayers are entitled to an exemption for a specified number of children (mostly first two) but no other.
Contraception is the most popular population control method in the world. It is a method used to prevent pregnancy. There are several methods of contraception or birth control. Some of the methods are irreversible while others are temporary.
Infant Mortality Decrease
High infant mortality is one of the reasons most parents, especially in developing countries, have many children. Such parents want to ensure that at least some of their children survive to adulthood. It is hypothesized that if child mortality is reduced, fertility reduction will eventually follow, with the net effect being lower population growth. The rate of infant mortality can be reduced by pregnant mothers frequently visiting clinics, access to quality food, and access to healthcare service before, during, and after birth.
The one-child policy is a population control method that encourages parents to have only one child. The policy was introduced in China in 1976 after the two-child policy and involved setting a limit on the number of children one could have. Although it was abolished in 2015, the Chinese government claimed that about 400 million births were prevented. However, the success rate of the policy remains a topic of contention as more than half of the population was allowed to have two children if the first was a girl.
Family planning services are methods and means which enables an individual to freely determine the number and spacing of their children. Under this population control method, parents may consider the number of children they wish to have or not have a child at all, as well as the age at which they wish to have children.
Challenges of Population Control
Although population control is largely supported by many people, some of the methods used have been contested. Some religious groups are against the use of contraceptives and other population control methods.