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Mexico History Timeline

Mexico's Information

Flag of Mexico
Land Area 1,943,945 km2
Water Area 20,430 km2
Total Area 1,964,375 km2
Population 123,166,749
Population Density 62.70 / km2
Government Type Federal Presidential Republic
GDP (PPP) $2,310.00 Billion
GDP Per Capita $18,900
Currency Peso (MXN)
Largest Cities
  • Mexico City (12,294,193)
  • Iztapalapa (1,820,888)
  • Ecatepec (1,806,226)
  • Guadalajara (1,640,589)
  • Puebla (1,590,256)
  • Ciudad Juarez (1,512,354)
  • Tijuana (1,376,457)
  • Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl (1,232,220)
  • Gustavo A. Madero (1,193,161)
  • Gustavo A. Madero (1,185,772)
  • (1517) Spanish explorer, Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba, arrived in Yucatan from Cuba; native Mayas clashed with explorers, killed over 20, including Cordoba; captured several
  • (1519) Spanish governor sent Hernan Cortes to Mexico; took control of town of Tabasco, founded city of Verazruz; Cortes began inward march into Mexico; Cortes took Moctezuma hostage, gained control of Tenochtitlan; Mexico became known as "New Spain"
  • (1521) After series of conflicts, Cortes defeated Aztecs, built Mexico City
  • (1550 - 1590) Chichimeca War - conflict between Spanish colonizers and allies against Chichimeca Indians; longest, most expensive conflict between Spanish and indigenous peoples
  • (1810) Father Miguel Hidalgo issued call for Mexico's independence
  • (1811) Father Hidalgo captured, killed at Chihuahua
  • (1821) Mexican leaders made plans to separate from Spain; Treaty of Cordoba signed marking official beginning of independence
  • (1823) Guadalupe Victoria became first elected president of Mexico
  • (1829) Spain attempted to recapture Mexico
  • (1833) Santa Anna became president after leading successful resistance against Spain
  • (1836) Texas declared independence from Mexico; Santa Anna defeated by Sam Houston at Battle of San Jacinto
  • (1846) USA declared war on Mexico
  • (1848) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended war between Mexico and USA; Texas, California, New Mexico ceded to US; US paid $15 million for the land
1800's continued
  • (1857) Santa Anna exiled, Juan Alvarez assumed power, established reforms, new constitution
  • (1858 - 1861) Civil War
  • (1861) War ended, Benito Juarez became president, suspended all debt payments to foreign governments; Napolean III sent troops, forced Juarez to flee
  • (1867) France withdrew troops from Mexico, Juarez reinstated as president
  • (1872) Juarez died of heart attack, Porfirio Díaz became his successor; commercial, economic development favored upper classes, not the poor
  • (1910) Mexican Revolution began; Francisco Madero became president
  • (1913) Madero overthrown, murdered; General Victoriano Huerto declared himself dictator
  • (1914) Huerto forced to resign; Venustiano Carranza took control; USA seized Vera Cruz
  • (1916) USA forces entered Mexico in search of Francisco "Pancho" Villa
  • (1917) New consititution established; Alvaro Obregon elected president
  • (1929) National Revolutionary Party established
  • (1934) President Lazaro Cardenas began nationalization of oil, established land reforms, industrial expansion
  • (1942) Mexico declared war on Japan, Germany
  • (1946) Miguel Aleman elected first civilian president since 1911
  • (1968) Mexico City hosted Olympic Games; student demonstration resulted in hundreds of protestors wounded, over 100 killed
  • (1976) Huge oil reserves discovered in Bay of Campeche
  • (1985) Earthquake in Mexico City killed nearly 10,000; caused heavy damages
  • (1992) Mexico joined USA, Canada in signing North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
1900's continued
  • (1994) Ernesto Zedillo elected president; Mexico peso plunged in international markets, caused banking crisis
  • (1996) Popular Revolutionary Army attacked government troops
  • (1997) Paramilitary gunmen killed 45 Indians in Chiapas village; caused international outcry
  • (2000) Vincente Fox elected president
  • (2001) Zapatista guerrillas staged march from Chiapas to Mexico City to highlight demands
  • (2002) Millions of secret security files released regarding torture, murder of hundreds of political activists by security forces in 1960s, 1970s; three army officers charged with killings of 134 leftists in 1970s
  • (2005) Six prison officials murdered due to tension between authorities, drug gangs
  • (2006) Post of federal special prosecutor created to handle violent crime against women; 65 coal miners killed in explosion at mine in Coahuila; Felipe Calderon won presidental election; U.S. President George W. Bush signed legislation to build fence along US - Mexico border to curb illegal immigration
  • (2007) Rains caused heavy flooding of state of Tabasco, nearly 500,000 homeless
  • (2008) Drug-related killings soared, more than 4,000 killed in 18 months including 450 police, soldiers and prosecutors
  • (2009) Mexican government unveiled package of emergency measures to protect economy against US economic downturn; over 1,000 killed in drug-related violence first six weeks of 2009; Army troops entered Ciudad Juarez due to warfare between rival drug gangs; Arturo Beltran Leyva, one of Mexico's most-wanted drug lords, killed; drug-related killings in 2009 topped 6,500
  • (2010) Three people connected to US consulate in Ciudad Juarez killed in drug-related controversies; U.S. President Barack Obama signed bill to put more agents, equipment on border to stop flow of illegal immigrants

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