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Lebanon History Timeline

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Lebanon's Information

Flag of Lebanon
Land Area 10,230 km2
Water Area 170 km2
Total Area 10,400 km2
Population 6,237,738
Population Density 599.78 / km2
Government Type Parliamentary Republic
GDP (PPP) $85.16 Billion
GDP Per Capita $18,500
Currency Pound (LBP)
Largest Cities
  • Beirut (1,916,100)
  • Tripoli (229,398)
  • Sidon (163,554)
  • Tyre (135,204)
  • Nabatiye et Tahta (120,000)
  • Habbouch (98,433)
  • Djounie (96,315)
  • Zahle (78,145)
  • Baalbek (30,916)
  • En Naqoura (24,910)
BC
  • (1200s BC) Phoenicians invented the alphabet, created Tyrian Purple (dye)
  • (774 BC) Reign of King Pygmalion of Tyre ended
  • (724 BC) Assyrians began a four-year siege of Tyre
  • (710 BC) Judah, Tyre, Sidon revolted against Assyria
  • (587 BC) Region annexed to Babylonian empire
  • (555 - 333 BC) Persian period of rule
  • (332 - 64 BC) Hellenistic period. Alexander the Great took over Tyre, after his death, there were a series of Hellenistic rulers
  • (140 BC) Beirut was destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon
  • (64 BC) Beirut was conquered by Agrippa
451 AD - 1600s
  • (451) Christian community of Maronites sought refuge in mountains of Lebanon
  • (551) Earthquake and tsunami destroyed Beirut, killed 30,000 within the city, over 250,000 along coast
  • (630) A group of autonomous Maronite communities settled in Mount Lebanon following conquest of Syria
  • (632 - 661) Islam brought to area surrounding Lebanon by Caliph Abu Bakr
  • (661) Muawiyah I, founder of the Umayyad dynasty, became governor of Syria, included Lebanon
  • (986) New religion, the Druze, was founded by Ad-Darazi
  • (1110) Crusaders captured Beirut and Sidon
  • (1124) Tyre surrendered to the Crusaders
  • (1291) Shia Muslims, Druze rebelled against Mamluks
  • (1308) Mamluks crushed rebellion
  • (1516) A semi-autonomous reign of Lebanon was granted to Emir Fakhr ad-Din I by Ottoman Sultan Selim I
  • (1570 - 1635) Fakhr ad-Din II reigned
  • (1613) After failure to defeat Ahmad al Hafiz of Damascus, Fakhr ad-Din II was exiled to Tuscany
  • (1618) Fakhr ad-Din returned to Lebanon
  • (1622) Battle of Anjar between Ottoman army and Fakhr ad-Din II's army took place
  • (1635) Fakhr ad-Din executed after army defeated
1800s
  • (1840) British and Ottoman troops landed on Lebanon's coast
  • (1840 - 1858) On-going conflicts between the Druze and Maronite
  • (1857) Wine industry started when Jesuit monks founded Chateau Ksara in Bekaa Valley
  • (1860) War erupted between Druze and Maronites
  • (1860) Napoleon III of France sent 7,000 troops to Beirut, helped establish a partition: Druze controlled the territory, Maronites forced into an enclave
  • (1880) Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon were part of Syria under Ottoman rule
  • (1887) Villager discovered royal tomb with 18 marble sarcophagi in underground chambers near Sidon

1900s

  • (1912) In first act of war against Ottoman Empire, Italy bombed Beirut
  • (1914-1918) World War I
  • (1914) Jamal Pasha military occupied Lebanon
  • (1915) Blockade of eastern Mediterranean coast established by Jamal Pasha, thousands of Lebanese died from famine and plagues
  • (1916) 21 Syrians and Lebanese were executed by Turkish authorities for alleged anti-Turkish activities
  • (1916) Sykes-Picot Agreement put Syria and Lebanon under French control, Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, Gulf States, Palestinian Mandate
  • (1920) France was granted mandate for Lebanon and Syria by the League of Nations, formed the State of Greater Lebanon
  • (1926) Constitution approved by Lebanese Representative Council and Lebanon Republic was established
  • (1940) Lebanon came under Vichy French government control
  • (1941) Lebanon proclaimed independence
  • (1943) French relinquished remaining control and Lebanon gained independence
  • (1943) Bishara al-Khuri elected first president of Lebanon
  • (1943) Power-sharing agreement was established, which called for the president to be a Maronite Christian, the prime minister to be a Sunni Muslim and the speaker of the chamber of deputies a Shia Muslim
  • (1946) British and French troops withdrew from Lebanon
  • (1946) Lebanon became member of United Nations
  • (1948) Palestinian refugees arrived in Lebanon following Israel statehood
  • (1948) Constitution was amended allowing Bishara al-Khuri to run for second term as president
  • (1948) General strike protesting corruption and opposition to Khuri government forced Khuri's resignation, Camille Chamoun became president
    1900s continued
    • (1983) Suicide attack on U.S. Embassy killed 63
    • (1983) Truck filled with explosives, driven by suicide terrorist killed 241 U.S. Marines, injured 80 at their barrackss at Beirut Airport
    • (1983) Suicide terrorist killed 58 and injured 15 at French military headquarters
    • (1985) Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon, buffer zone established in the south
    • (1985) Peace agreement was signed between Lebanese Muslim and Christian leaders
    • (1986) Shiite Muslim militiamen battled with Palestinians and pro-Palestinian Sunni Muslims, 53 killed
    • (1987) Prime Minister Rashid Karami killed when bomb exploded in helicopter, Selim al-Hoss became acting prime minister
    • (1987) Syria sent troops to West Beirut to enforce ceasefire
    • (1988) Maronite Commander-in-Chief, Michel Aoun, appointed interim prime minister by outgoing President Gemayel
    • (1989) Taif Accord (agreement to provide "the basis for the ending of the civil war and return to political normalcy in Lebanon) signed
    • (1989) Charter of National Reconciliation reduced authority of the president, transferred executive power to the cabinet
    • (1989) President Rene Moawad was assassinated three weeks after taking office
    • (1989) Pro-Syrian legislator, Elias Hrawi, elected president
    • (1990) Civil war officially ended. Lebanese government reestablished control over most of country with help of Syria
    • (1991) Lebanon participated in Middle East Peace Conference
    • (1991) The dissolution of all militias, except for the Shia Hezbollahs, was ordered by the National Assembly, South Lebanon Army refused
    • (1991) After defeating the PLO, the Lebanese Army took over southern port of Sidon
    • (1992) Rafik Hariri became prime minister, began reconstruction of Lebanon
    • (1993) Israel launched artillery and air assaults on Lebanon in attempt to eliminate Hezbollah and Palestinian guerrillas
    • (1994) Israeli helicopter gunship killed over 30 Hezbollah trainees
    • (1995) Hezbollah guerrillas fired rockets into northern Israel
    • (1995) Israel shelled 15 Shiite Muslim villages
    • (1996) Israelis bombed Hezbollah bases in southern Lebanon in "Operation Grapes of Wrath"
    • (1996) Israeli attack struck UN base at Qana, killed over 100 displaced Lebanese civilians
    • (1998) Emile Lahoud sworn in as president
    • (1998) Prime Minister Rafik Hariri resigned

    2000s

    • (2000) South Lebanon Army collapsed, Israel withdrew troops from southern Lebanon
    • (2000) UN peacekeeping troops set up along Israel, Lebanon borders
    • (2000) President Lahoud appointed Rafik Hariri as prime minister for second time
    • (2004) UN passed resolution, called for free elections, withdrawal of all foreign forces, disbanding of all militias in Lebanon
    • (2004) President Emile Lahoud's term extended for three years by Parliament, four cabinet members resigned in protest
    • (2004) Prime Minister Rafik Hariri resigned, dissolved his cabinet
    • (2004) President Lahoud appointed Omar Karami as prime minister
    • (2005) Former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri assassinated by car bomb, 22 others also killed, over 100 injured
    • (2005) Prime Minister Omar Karami resigned
    • (2005) Following pro-Syrian demonstrations, President Lahoud reappointed Omar Karami as prime minister
    • (2005) Over 1 million took part in anti-Syrian protest
    • (2005) After failure to form a new government, Prime Minister Omar Karami resigned a second time
    • (2005) Najib Ikati appointed prime minister
    • (2005) Syria withdrew all troops after 29 years of occupation of Lebanon
    • (2005) Following elections, new Parliament chose Fouad Siniora as prime minister
    • (2006) Denmark's Embassy in Beirut attacked during demonstration against cartoons depicting Prophet Muhammad in Danish newspaper
    • (2006) Hezbollah militants captured two Israeli soldiers in cross-border raid
    2000s continued
    • (2006) Israeli troops crossed Lebanese border with warplanes, tank, gunboats
    • (2006) Israel launched military campaign against Lebanon's main airport, highways, military bases
    • (2006) In 34-day Israel and Lebanon War, over 1,200 people were killed – mostly civilians
    • (2006) UN and Lebanese government deployed forces to Israeli border
    • (2006) Five ministers resigned from the government
    • (2006) Opposition demonstrators in Beirut demanded resignation of Prime Minister Saniora
    • (2007) General strike called by Hezbollah-led opposition
    • (2007) Lebanese army took control of Palestinian refugee camp Nahr al-Bared, more than 300 people died and over 40,000 Palestinians fled during siege
    • (2007) Parliament adjourned session, rescheduled elections
    • (2007) Led by Prime Minister Fouad Siniroa, a caretaker government assumed power after President Lahoud stepped down
    • (2007) Army chief of operation, General Francois al-Hajj and two others were killed in a car bomb attack
    • (2008) Car bomb struck U.S. Embassy vehicle, three Lebanese civilian bystanders were killed, one injured
    • (2008) Car bomb killed top anti-terrorism investigator in Lebanon, Capt. Wissam Eid, and with three others
    • (2008) Seven protesters were killed during clashes with troops in Beirut over electricity rationing
    • (2008) Imad Mughniyeh, a Hezbollah commander, was killed in a car bombing in Syria
    • (2008) Clashes between Hezbollah and pro-government factions killed over 80 people
    • (2008) Gunmen from Shia group Hezbollah seized most of western Beirut, more than 11 killed
    • (2008) Parliament elected Michel Suleiman as president
    • (2008) President Suleiman reappointed Fouad Siniora as prime minister
    • (2008) Bomb blast killed 14, injured at least 30 in Tripoli
    • (2008) Pro-Syrian opposition member, Saleh Aridi, killed when car bomb exploded
    • (2008) Lebanon and Syria established diplomatic relations
    • (2008) U.S. agreed to deliver tanks to Beirut
    • (2008) Russia agreed to provide Lebanon with 10 fighter jets
    • (2009) Three rockets from Lebanon struck northern Israel , two wounded, Prime Minister Siniora condemned attacks
    • (2009) Lebanon opened embassy in Syria
    • (2009) Following elections, Saad Hariri nominated as prime minister
    • (2009) Prime Minister Hariri formed government of national unity, ended five months of deadlock
    • (2009) Two members of Hamas militant group were killed, two other injured in bomb explosion in Beirut
    • (2010) Ethiopian jet crashed into Mediterranean Sea minutes after leaving Beirut airport, no survivors
    • (2010) Parliament passed law granting Palestinian refugees right to work in any profession
    • (2010) Lebanese and Israeli troops exchanged gun fire along border, killing four
    • (2010) Russia agreed to provide Lebanese army with helicopters, tanks and munitions to bolster poorly equipped military
    • (2011) Government collapsed
    • (2011) UN-backed court issued four arrest warrants for Hezbollah members for 2005 assassination of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri
    • (2011) Najib Mikati appointed prime-minister designate, formed new government
    • (2011) Over 5,000 Syrian refugees were living in Lebanon
    • (2012) Shells fired during Syrian clashes landed in Amayer, Lebanon killing one person, injuring three
    • (2012) 30,000 Syrians fled into Lebanon in 48 hours
    • (2012) Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar, Kuwait ordered their citizens to leave Lebanon due to Syrian conflict
    • (2012) Smoking ban in all public places went into force
    • (2012) Security Chief, Willam Al-Hassan, and eight others killed in car bombing in Beirut
    • (2012) Fighting in Tripoli, killed three, injured six soldiers
    • (2013) Syrian warplanes and helicopters fired rockets into northern Lebanon
    • (2013) Prime Minister Najib Mikati's government resigned; Tammam Salam appointed new prime minister
    • (2013) Parliament delayed elections due to security concerns
    • (2013) Clashes with Sunni militants in Sidon killed 17 Lebanese soldiers
    • (2013) Bomb attacks near two mosques in Tripoli killed 42, wounded over 400
    • (2013) 22 people in killed suicide bombing outside Iran's Embassy in Beirut
    • (2014) After ten months of talks, a new power-sharing government was formed with Prime Minister Tammam Salam
    • (2014) Suicide car bomber attacked Lebanese army checkpoint near Syrian border, three soldiers killed, four wounded
    • (2014) Syrian refugees in Lebanon surpassed one million

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