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Romania Geography


Romania's natural landscape is almost evenly divided among mountains, hills and plains.

As for mountains, the medium-sized Carpathian's extend through the center of the country in a wide arc, and they are the source of several rivers.

The Transylvanian Alps, a range of the Carpathian's, divide central and southern Romania. The country's highest point, Mt. Moldoveanu, is located there. It stands at 2,544 m (8,346 ft)

Beyond the Carpathian foothills, the land slopes down into rolling hills and plains. The low-lying Romanian Plain, to the south of Craiova, extends east to the Black Sea.

The country's lowest land is found along the Danube Delta, an area of marshes, floating reed islands, and sandbanks.

The Danube River travels some 1,075 km through or along Romanian territory, forming much of the southern borders with Serbia and Bulgaria.

The Danube itself is Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It rises in the Black Forest in Germany, then flows southeastward for a distance of some 2850 km (1771 miles).

Other rivers of note include the Arges, Dambovita, Ialomita, Jiu, Mures, Olt, Prut, Siret and Somes.

Numerous small lakes crisscross the country, some are of the mountain glacial variety. There are also a dozen, or so, reservoirs of size.

The Prut River forms its eastern border with Moldova, and the Danube River forms its southern border with Bulgaria, then flowing north and east into the Black Sea.

Geography Romania
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates:

46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:



total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:

total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km


225 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms


central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources:

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 40.82%
permanent crops: 2.25%
other: 56.93% (2001)

Irrigated land:

28,800 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:

earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment - current issues:

soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

Note: The information tabled directly above was researched by and provided by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency

map of Romania

locator map of Romania

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Pastures of the Carpathian Mountains, Romania


About the Author

John Moen is a cartographer who along with his wife are the orignal founders of worldatlas.com. He and his wife, Chris Woolwine-Moen, produced thousands of award-winning maps that are used all over the world and content that aids students, teachers, travelers and parents with their geography and map questions. Today, it's one of the most popular educational sites on the web.

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This page was last updated on August 13, 2015.