Which Countries Border Lithuania?

A bridge at the border of Russia and Lithuania.

Lithuania is a country in northeastern Europe. Historical evidence indicates that human habitation within Lithuania’s borders began approximately in the 10th millennium BC. Throughout Lithuania’s history, some communities have exerted their influence within Lithuania’s borders with the main ones being the Baltic tribes. The modern-day boundaries of Lithuania trace their roots to the boundaries of the first Lithuanian state that was formed sometime during the 13th century. Lithuania has land border stretching approximately 963 miles long and shares with four nations of Belarus, Russia, Latvia, and Poland.


Poland and Lithuania are separated by a boundary that is roughly 65 miles long and is situated in the southwestern section of the country. There are many towns along the Lithuanian side of the border such as Kalvarija and Lazdijai. There are also towns located on the polish side of the border such as Suwalki and Augustow. There are several roads and a railway that connects the towns in Poland to the towns in Lithuania. The present-day boundary between the two nations dates back to 1990 when Lithuania regained its independence. Initially, the border separated the nation of Poland from the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic that was part of the USSR at the time. The border was formed at the end of the Second World War. Before the Second World War, the Second Polish Republic and the nation of Lithuania had a different border. During this period, Poland and Lithuania were involved in a border dispute over who controlled the Vilnius Region. There were several efforts to mediate the conflict by the League of Nations.

In modern times, Poland and Lithuania have close ties which were solidified after the collapse of the USSR. When Lithuania became an independent nation, Poland was the first nation to officially recognize it. In Poland, the Lithuanian government is represented by an embassy located in Warsaw. In Lithuania, the Polish government has three representations: an embassy located in Vilnius, a consulate general located in Sejny as well as an honorary consulate within Klaipėda.


The boundary that separates Belarus and Lithuania is roughly 422 miles long, and a section of which crosses through several physical features such as River Apyvardė, lake Apvardai, and the Dysna River. Several individuals consider the border between the two nations to be the outermost border of the European Union a distinction which it has held since 2004. Since 2007, the border between Belarus and Lithuania has been the outer border of the Schengen region.

The relationship between Lithuania and Belarus dates back to the period when they were both parts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Both nations would later be part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the two nations gained their independence and they established formal diplomatic ties. The Belarusian government is represented by embassy located in Vilnius while the Lithuanian government is represented by an embassy located in Mink as well as a consulate general situated in Hrodna.


The boundary that separates Lithuania and Latvia is approximately 338 miles long and is situated in the northern section of the country. There are many towns along the Lithuanian section of the border such as Skuodas, Zagare, Maizeikai, and Rokiskis. The towns located on the Latvian section of the border include Auce, Eleja, Nereta, and Subate. During the 1920’s Latvia and Lithuania were involved in a border dispute. The dispute revolved around the cities of Palanga and Šventoji and was relatively peaceful. An international commission helped Latvia and Lithuania reach a peaceful settlement to the dispute.

Due to the shared history between the two nations, Latvia and Lithuania have exceptionally close ties. In Latvia, the Lithuanian government is represented by an embassy located in Vilnius. An embassy located at Riga represents the Latvian government. Latvia and Lithuania cooperate in areas such as economic development, infrastructure development, and security.


Russia and Lithuania share a border that is approximately 163 miles long. The border passes through some distinct physical features such as the Curonian Spit, the Neman River, Lake Vištytis, and Curonian Lagoon. The boundary that separates Russia and Lithuania has varied greatly throughout history, and in some instances, it was remarkably different from the present day boundary. The boundary between the two nations dates back to the end of the First World War. During the period when Lithuania was part of the USSR, the boundary between Russia and Lithuania was considered an internal boundary. After the USSR broke up, Lithuania became an independent nation, and the boundary was then considered an external boundary.

The ties between Russia and Lithuania date back to the period of the Russian Empire. Russia formally recognized Lithuania as an independent nation in 1991. In modern times, the ties between the two countries include diplomatic and economic relationships. The Russian government is represented by an embassy in Vilnius as well as consulates situated in the cities of Klaipeda and Marijampole. The Lithuanian government is represented by an embassy located in Moscow as well as four consulates spread out in various cities such as Sovetsk, St. Petersburg, Irkutsk, and Kaliningrad.


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