Turkey is a secular parliamentary representative democratic republic where the Prime Minister is the head of government and President is the head of state. The Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. The new republic witnessed a series of military coups and political instability over the years. The constitution observed in the country was adopted on November 7, 1982, after a referendum.
The President Of Turkey
Turkey’s head of state was formerly elected by the parliament, but an amendment was adopted in 2007, and the responsibility now rests with the citizens. The president is required to be over 40 years of age and be a holder of a bachelor’s degree. The President is mandated to oversee the implementation of the constitution, and represents the country’s unity. The president represents the state internationally and ratifies international treaties. The President promulgates laws, sends bills back to parliament for reconsideration or submits them to referendum, and calls for new parliamentary elections. The president also appoints and receives the resignation of the Prime Minister, and appoints or dismisses ministers with the advice from the Prime Minister.
Prime Minister and Council of Ministers Of Turkey
Turkey’s Prime Minister serves as the head of government. He/she is appointed by the President, and in practice is head of the party with the most deputies in parliament. The Prime Minister is mandated to form the government, and he/she appoints ministers. The Prime Minister oversees the implementation of government policy. He/she heads the Council of Ministers who oversees various sectors such as agriculture, environment, labor, and tourism. Each minister is responsible for their individual jurisdiction and accountable to the Prime Minister who can submit a proposal for a particular minister to be dismissed by the President.
The Legislature Of Turkey
General elections are held after five years to elect deputies to the Grand National Assembly. A total of 550 deputies represent 85 electoral districts and 81 provinces. The Assembly’s principal task is to enact, amend, and repeal laws. It keeps the Council of Ministers in check. The Assembly holds debates on matters concerning the budget, currency, declarations of war, and ratification of international treaties. It also decides on whether to grant pardon and amnesty. The Assembly has the power to amend the constitution and to approve plans for development as well as electing members of the Constitutional Court. It can also impeach the President on the grounds of treason.
The Administrative Areas Of Turkey
The country is divided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes. Among the criteria used to create provinces are public service requirements and geography. The provinces are further subdivided into 923 districts which further disintegrate into towns and villages. Local administrative institutions are mandated to deliver public services to the citizens.
The Judiciary Of Turkey
The Judicial power in the country is vested upon a network of independent courts and supreme judiciary institutions. Examples of supreme courts are the Constitutional Court, Court of Jurisdictional Conflicts, Supreme Court of Appeal, and the Supreme Military Court of Appeal. Criminal and civil courts serve the country’s citizens. Judges do not employ a jury to determine cases but rely on their convictions and the law.