Angola is a country located in Southern Africa which gained independence from Portugal in 1975. According to the current constitution, Angola is a unitary presidential constitutional republic where the president is the leader of the government and is also the head of state.
Constitution Of Angola
The Constitution is the supreme law in Angola, and all other laws are based on its provisions. Immediately after it gained independence from Portugal in 1975, Angola promulgated its first constitution which was extensively amended in 1976 and 1980 to be in line with the establishment of the country as a single-party state. In 1992, a new constitution was drafted with the primary objective being to scrap off the one-party status of the country and allowing a multiparty democratic republic with democratic elections. The constitution is still being implemented in the country, albeit with several amendments over the years. The 2010 amendment abolished the direct election of the president and limited the president to two five-year terms. The 2010 constitutional amendment also scrapped off the prime minister position and allocated all executive authority to the president.
The President Of Angola
The President of Angola serves as the head of state and head of government as well as the commander in chief of the armed forces. After the 2010 amendment of the constitution, the president was given the power to appoint and dismiss all senior government officials. The President is the leader of the executive and is mandated to appoint all officials in the executive, including the state ministers, state secretaries, and ministers. According to the constitution, the President is not directly elected by the public but is the leader of the winning party or coalition during the general elections which take place after every five years.
National Assembly Of Angola
The National Assembly of Angola is a single-chambered parliament (unicameral) and is the legislative branch of government. The National Assembly has 220 members comprised of 130 members who are elected by proportional representation and 90 members who are elected by provincial districts. The National Assembly’s primary function is the creation of laws, amending existing laws and executing state level budgets. In Angola’s National Assembly, voting for or against motions is done through closed list proportional representation. As leader of the government, the President is the head of the National Assembly. The National Assembly features several committees (permanent and temporary) which are mandated to assist the National Assembly with its administrative and operational functions.
Judiciary Of Angola
According to the Constitution, the Judiciary is mandated with the administration of justice in a system known as the Unified Justice System. The courts are protected, independent, and are impartial in administering justice. The judicial system in Angola is comprised of the municipal courts, trial courts, provincial courts, and the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is comprised of 16 court judges who are all appointed by the president. The leader of the judiciary is the Chief Justice who is also appointed by the president. The Constitutional Court is comprised of 11 justices, and four are appointed by the National Assembly, four appointed by the President, two appointed by the Superior Council of the Judiciary, and one by the public.