Equatorial Guinea is an independent nation located in Central Africa. It has a population of approximately 1,222,245 people. The official languages are Spanish, French, and Portuguese. The nation covers a vast area of 28,000 square kilometers. The name Equatorial is from the word 'equator', while Guinea comes from the Gulf of Guinea. The country's capital city is Malabo, and its largest city is Bata. The majority of the populace are the Fang speaking community while other ethnic groups across the country include the Igbo, Annobon, Ndowe, Bubi, and the Bujeba.
Equatorial Guinea is made up of two islands, the mainland region, and the insular area. The mainland region is called Rio Muni, which was named after Muni River. It is a neighboring country of Cameroon and Gabon. With an area of about 26,017 square kilometers, this continental part of Equatorial Guinea has a population of 883,000 people (72% of the country's total population). Rio Muni is made up of five provinces: Centro Suri, Djibloho, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, and Wele Nzas. The residents of Rio Muni speak two main languages, Fang-Ntumu (in the northern region) and Fang-Okah (in the southern part). Besides, they can communicate in Spanish. The most prominent city in Equatorial Guinea, Bata, is situated at this mainland.
The insular region is made up of two islands namely Bioko (formerly Fernando Po until the 1970s) and Annobon. Bioko covers an area of 2,017 square kilometers, and it is apparently 40km away from Cameroon. Annobon, on the other hand, stretches an area of 17 square kilometers and is 670 kilometers from the capital city, Malabo. It is a volcanic island and constitutes one of the most remote regions of Equatorial Guinea.
Between Bioko and Annobon is the independent nation of Sao Tome and Principe. Corisco Bay is an island, but it does not form part of the insular region of the continental area. It is 25 kilometers away from the mouth of Rio Muni with an estimated population of 150 people. Corisco Bay has two township centers named Elobey Grande and Elobey Chico.
Governance and Economy
In 1778, the Portuguese gave up Rio Muni for the Spanish colonialists concerning the El Pardo treaty. During this time, the Spanish had a rough time trying to enslave the inhabitants of Rio Muni since most of them died of Yellow Fever. Cocoa farming and timber selling were the primary economic activity. Rio Muni later became a part of Spanish Guinea in 1959.
Equatorial Guinea is a unitary one-party state headed by a president while its Legislature is composed of the upper house (Senate) and the lower (Chamber of Deputies). Equatorial Guinea gained its independence from the Spanish colonialists on October 12, 1968. Their currency is Central African CFA franc. Despite being among the most significant producers of oil in Sub Saharan Africa, its wealth is uneven with a large gap between the rich and the poor.
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