Bangladesh is a country situated in South Asia and is bordered by India, Burma, and the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is the eighth most populated country in the world and the third largest Muslim majority country in the world. The capital city of Bangladesh is Dhaka which is the country’s largest city followed by Chittagong which is the country’s port city.
Bangladesh is a former British colony that was under the rule of Pakistan until 1971 when it was declared independent. Before the British, Bangladesh was ruled by ancient Buddhist and Hindu states. Islamist conquest of ancient Bangladesh began with the 1204 invasion by Bhaktiar Khilji. At the turn of the 15th century, the whole of ancient Bangladesh was under Islamic traditions that are prevalent to date. The partition of the British India colony saw Bangladesh remain in the domain of Pakistan and it was known as East Bengal. Injustices from West Pakistan establishment as well as discrimination in the distribution of funds led to political uprisings in the East Bengal region. Repressions from the Pakistani army led to armed insurgencies that were supported by foreign powers like India. The Republic of Bangladesh was realized after the surrender of Pakistani forces to the Indian and Bengali freedom army on December 12, 1976.
Politics and Government
Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy with a ceremonial Presidency and an executive Prime Minister. The administrative capital is Dhaka where Parliament sits as well as other governmental ministries and agencies of Bangladesh. The Bangladeshi Parliament has 350 members in which 50 seats are meant for female nominated members. The legal system has the Supreme Court at the top which is independent. Most laws are compiled in English through a 1987 directive saw the use of Bengali in writing of government directives and laws. Family, inheritance, and marriage are governed by Hindu, Islamic, and Christian law. The Bangladeshi armed forces are known for their participation in UN peacekeeping missions around the world like UNMISS. The US and India carry out military exercises with the Bangladeshi armed forces. Bangladesh is a member of the UN, Commonwealth, and is a party to the Rome Statute. The Foreign Policy of the Bangladesh government is driven by friendship to all and malice towards none and it maintains foreign relations with its neighbors.
Climate and Geography
Bangladesh experiences a tropical climate and the monsoon rains often hit the country. Climate change affects Bangladesh as well as natural calamities like typhoons, cyclones, and floods which leads to loss of life and property. The geography of Bangladesh is dominated by the Ganges delta. The land is fertile and flat. The country has eight administrative divisions with 64 districts. The divisions are Dhaka, Khulna, Chittagong, Barisal, Rangpur, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, and Sylhet.
Economic Activities, Culture, and Religion
Bangladesh is a major textile exporter and a natural gas producer in Asia. Electricity is produced by burning natural gas in Bangladesh. Major steel, pharmaceutical, and electronics firms have industries in the country with the port of Chittagong being a major hub for imports and exports out of the country. The power shortages will soon be a thing of the past after the construction of a nuclear power plant with Russian expertise. Bangladesh has a rich culture that is stored in its performing and visual arts, literature and architecture. It is predominantly in Bengali. The dominant religion is Islam with Sunni Muslim sect dominating. Hinduism is followed in second place and Buddhism in third. Despite Islam being recognized as the State religion, there is a ban on religious-based political parties.